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Restart of a Load Resume Yes Log No - DB2 v7 on Z/OS. load a non-empty table with RESUME YES LOG NO. The load failed in saving shaking hand, the. RELOAD phase and I had SORTKEYS specified so, the indexes were pushed to. REBUILD pending status as well. Replace. Factors That A Healthy Essay. Assuming I don't have a Queisce point or ICOPY where I can. recover to, can't I save the table ? Using LOG NO with RESUME YES is.
such a dangerous scenario ? IS there an option in LOAD utility (I've. searched quite enough on saving shaking hand, manuals) which re-allocates files to new. catalog entries while restarting LOAD ? Welcome to the IDUG DB2-L list. To unsubscribe, go to the archives and home page at http://www.idugdb2-l.org/archives/db2-l.html. From that page select Join or Leave the list.
The IDUG DB2-L FAQ is at http://www.idugdb2-l.org. The Motorcycle Movie. The IDUG List Admins can be reached at [login to unmask email] Find out the latest on IDUG conferences at saving private ryan shaking hand http://conferences.idug.org/index.cfm. the tablespace, perhaps consolidating extents (if you have reached the. max extent limit) or adding a new candidate volume (if you have filled. the current volume).
It would help to know WHY you had your space abend. Product Manager, DB2. Tel: +44 (0)161 928 9334. Fax: +44 (0)161 941 3775. Mobile: +44 (0)7970 125 752. [login to Services for Personal Essay, unmask email] From: DB2 Data Base Discussion List [mailto:[login to ryan hand, unmask email] On. Behalf Of Chandrasekaran, Balachandran. Sent: 26 April 2006 12:26. To: [login to unmask email] Subject: [DB2-L] Restart of Comparing Pfizerâ€™s Business Standards Global Business a Load Resume Yes Log No - DB2 v7 on Z/OS.
load a non-empty table with RESUME YES LOG NO. Saving Ryan. The load failed in the. RELOAD phase and Gallipoli: in Australian Identity I had SORTKEYS specified so, the indexes were pushed to. REBUILD pending status as well. Replace. Assuming I don't have a Queisce point or ICOPY where I can. recover to, can't I save the table ? Using LOG NO with RESUME YES is.
such a dangerous scenario ? IS there an option in LOAD utility (I've. searched quite enough on manuals) which re-allocates files to new. catalog entries while restarting LOAD ? Welcome to shaking, the IDUG DB2-L list. To unsubscribe, go to the archives and. page select Join or Leave the list. The IDUG DB2-L FAQ is at.
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experience. It's rather easy to saving private ryan shaking hand, trash data if you restart it incorrectly. I would strongly recommend not to try and restart, but running a RECOVER. TABLESPACE first. You don't need to Augustine Essay, specify a Quiesce point or image copy, i.e. DON'T do a TORBA or TOLRSN recovery, just a simple recovery to. current (you can do that with any tablespace, any time, can you?).
I'm not. sure whether that would be true as well if you specify LOG YES; in saving shaking hand, that. case specify the RBA that's recorded as the START_RBA in to the Global Standards Codex, SYSCOPY for the. LOAD job. Before the RECOVER, first increase PRIQTY and/or SECQTY to. consolidate extents. Then rerun the whole LOAD job.
there cannot be any options for reallocating the files. DB2 Oracle Database Administrator. aMaDEUS Data Processing. Erding / Munich, Germany. Chandrasekaran, Balachandran [login to unmask email] Please respond to saving private shaking, DB2 Database Discussion list at IDUG. [login to unmask email]
Sent by: DB2 Data Base Discussion List [login to unmask email] [login to unmask email] [DB2-L] Restart of a Load Resume Yes Log No - DB2 v7 on Z/OS. load a non-empty table with RESUME YES LOG NO. The load failed in Gallipoli: Essay, the. RELOAD phase and I had SORTKEYS specified so, the saving ryan, indexes were pushed to. REBUILD pending status as well. Replace. Assuming I don't have a Queisce point or ICOPY where I can. recover to, can't I save the table ? Using LOG NO with RESUME YES is. such a dangerous scenario ? IS there an option in LOAD utility (I've.
searched quite enough on manuals) which re-allocates files to new. catalog entries while restarting LOAD ? Welcome to the IDUG DB2-L list. To unsubscribe, go to Banking for Personal Customers Essay, the archives and private home page at http://www.idugdb2-l.org/archives/db2-l.html. From that page select Join or Leave the list. The IDUG DB2-L FAQ is at http://www.idugdb2-l.org. The IDUG List Admins can be reached at [login to unmask email] Find out the latest on that a Healthy Heart Essay, IDUG conferences at http://conferences.idug.org/index.cfm.
should do rather than what it does do! and I've been to the v8 utility guide to saving ryan shaking, check something out. To The Global. There it. says, in the section on restarting the LOAD utility Any job that. finished abnormally in the RELOAD, SORT, BUILD, or SORTBUILD phase. restarts from the beginning of the RELOAD phase. so you CAN'T do a.
PHASE restart of the load! SYSCOPY table at saving private shaking hand the start of the RELOAD phase - snag is, it only does. that for a LOG YES load. close to where the the motorcycle movie, job ran and attempt a RECOVER TORBA. Product Manager, DB2. Tel: +44 (0)161 928 9334. Fax: +44 (0)161 941 3775. Mobile: +44 (0)7970 125 752. [login to saving, unmask email] From: Grainger, Phil.
Sent: 26 April 2006 12:50. To: 'DB2 Database Discussion list at IDUG' Cc: '[login to Biography Augustine Essay, unmask email]' Subject: RE: [DB2-L] Restart of a Load Resume Yes Log No - DB2 v7 on. the tablespace, perhaps consolidating extents (if you have reached the. max extent limit) or adding a new candidate volume (if you have filled. the current volume). It would help to saving private ryan shaking, know WHY you had your space abend. Product Manager, DB2.
Tel: +44 (0)161 928 9334. Fax: +44 (0)161 941 3775. Mobile: +44 (0)7970 125 752. [login to unmask email] From: DB2 Data Base Discussion List [mailto:[login to unmask email] On. Behalf Of Chandrasekaran, Balachandran. Sent: 26 April 2006 12:26. To: [login to unmask email] Subject: [DB2-L] Restart of a Load Resume Yes Log No - DB2 v7 on Z/OS.
load a non-empty table with RESUME YES LOG NO. The load failed in the. RELOAD phase and I had SORTKEYS specified so, the indexes were pushed to. REBUILD pending status as well. Replace. Assuming I don't have a Queisce point or ICOPY where I can. recover to, can't I save the Gallipoli: The defining moment in Australian Identity, table ? Using LOG NO with RESUME YES is. such a dangerous scenario ? IS there an saving shaking hand option in LOAD utility (I've. searched quite enough on The Evolution, manuals) which re-allocates files to new. catalog entries while restarting LOAD ? Welcome to the IDUG DB2-L list. To unsubscribe, go to the archives and.
page select Join or Leave the list. Private Ryan Shaking Hand. The IDUG DB2-L FAQ is at. http://www.idugdb2-l.org. The IDUG List Admins can be reached at. [login to unmask email] Find out the latest on IDUG conferences. Welcome to the IDUG DB2-L list. To unsubscribe, go to of St. Essay, the archives and saving private hand home page at of St. of Hippo http://www.idugdb2-l.org/archives/db2-l.html. Saving Ryan Hand. From that page select Join or Leave the list. The IDUG DB2-L FAQ is at http://www.idugdb2-l.org. The IDUG List Admins can be reached at The Evolution [login to saving private ryan hand, unmask email] Find out the latest on IDUG conferences at http://conferences.idug.org/index.cfm. just wanted to confirm again so that I am not missing any chance ! I. never thought RESUME YES LOG NO is such a dangerous thing to do.
I remember the CA manual still says SPACE DEFN YES doesn't work for. RESUME kind of Load. Correct me if I am wrong. From: Grainger, Phil [mailto:[login to unmask email] Sent: Wednesday, April 26, 2006 6:31 PM. To: DB2 Database Discussion list at IDUG. Cc: Chandrasekaran, Balachandran. Subject: RE: [DB2-L] Restart of a Load Resume Yes Log No - DB2 v7 on.
Hmm, you know - I think I might have been guilty of thinking what DB2. should do rather than what it does do! and I've been to the v8 utility guide to check something out. There it. says, in the section on restarting the LOAD utility Any job that. finished abnormally in the RELOAD, SORT, BUILD, or SORTBUILD phase. restarts from the Banking Services Essay, beginning of the RELOAD phase. Private Shaking. so you CAN'T do a. PHASE restart of the load! SYSCOPY table at the start of the RELOAD phase - snag is, it only Comparing to the Global Business, does. that for a LOG YES load. close to saving ryan shaking, where the job ran and attempt a RECOVER TORBA.
Product Manager, DB2. Tel: +44 (0)161 928 9334. Fax: +44 (0)161 941 3775. Mobile: +44 (0)7970 125 752. [login to unmask email] From: Grainger, Phil. Sent: 26 April 2006 12:50. To: 'DB2 Database Discussion list at IDUG' Cc: '[login to unmask email]' Subject: RE: [DB2-L] Restart of diaries movie a Load Resume Yes Log No - DB2 v7 on.
the tablespace, perhaps consolidating extents (if you have reached the. max extent limit) or adding a new candidate volume (if you have filled. the current volume). It would help to know WHY you had your space abend. Product Manager, DB2.
Tel: +44 (0)161 928 9334. Fax: +44 (0)161 941 3775. Mobile: +44 (0)7970 125 752. [login to unmask email] From: DB2 Data Base Discussion List [mailto:[login to unmask email] On. Behalf Of Chandrasekaran, Balachandran. Sent: 26 April 2006 12:26.
To: [login to unmask email] Subject: [DB2-L] Restart of saving ryan shaking a Load Resume Yes Log No - DB2 v7 on Z/OS. load a non-empty table with RESUME YES LOG NO. The load failed in the. RELOAD phase and the motorcycle diaries I had SORTKEYS specified so, the indexes were pushed to. REBUILD pending status as well. Replace. Assuming I don't have a Queisce point or ICOPY where I can.
recover to, can't I save the saving private shaking hand, table ? Using LOG NO with RESUME YES is. such a dangerous scenario ? IS there an the motorcycle movie option in LOAD utility (I've. searched quite enough on saving private ryan shaking hand, manuals) which re-allocates files to of St. Essay, new. catalog entries while restarting LOAD ? Welcome to the IDUG DB2-L list. To unsubscribe, go to ryan shaking, the archives and. page select Join or Leave the list. The IDUG DB2-L FAQ is at. http://www.idugdb2-l.org.
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The IDUG List Admins can be reached at Gallipoli: in Australian [login to saving private hand, unmask email] Find out the latest on IDUG conferences at of Hippo Essay http://conferences.idug.org/index.cfm. SYSCOPY table at the start of the private ryan shaking, RELOAD phase - snag is, it only does. that for a LOG YES load. problems, just run a RECOVER TABLESPACE. DB2 Oracle Database Administrator.
aMaDEUS Data Processing. Erding / Munich, Germany. Welcome to the IDUG DB2-L list. To unsubscribe, go to the archives and home page at http://www.idugdb2-l.org/archives/db2-l.html. From that page select Join or Leave the the motorcycle, list. The IDUG DB2-L FAQ is at http://www.idugdb2-l.org.
The IDUG List Admins can be reached at [login to unmask email] Find out the latest on IDUG conferences at saving ryan http://conferences.idug.org/index.cfm. SYSCOPY table at the start of the RELOAD phase - snag is, it only does. that for a LOG YES load. point for Services for Personal Essay all updates since the. image copy was taken. - For ICTYPE P, the point after. the log-apply phase of. - For ICTYPE Q, the saving private ryan shaking hand, point after.
all data sets have been. - For ICTYPE R or S, the Gallipoli: The defining moment in Australian National Identity, end of. the log before the start of ryan shaking hand the. LOAD utility and before any data. - For ICTYPE T, the end of the log. when the utility is terminated. - For other values of ICTYPE, the.
end of the log before the a Healthy Heart, start. of the RELOAD phase of the LOAD. or REORG utility. Welcome to the IDUG DB2-L list. To unsubscribe, go to the archives and private home page at http://www.idugdb2-l.org/archives/db2-l.html.
From that page select Join or Leave the list. The IDUG DB2-L FAQ is at http://www.idugdb2-l.org. The IDUG List Admins can be reached at Pfizerâ€™s Business to the Global Codex [login to saving private ryan hand, unmask email] Find out the latest on IDUG conferences at the motorcycle movie http://conferences.idug.org/index.cfm. SPACE-DEFN would not have helped you in getting in an out-of-extent. SPACE-DEFN YES will RE-allocate the VSAM datasets with the attributes.
specified in saving shaking, the catalog, which isn't possible in a RESUME situation. Extent Size), which is a sliding scheme for Pfizerâ€™s Standards Codex SECQTY so you don't hit this. out of private extent situation until you have reached the max size of that Influece a Healthy the. From: DB2 Data Base Discussion List [mailto:[login to unmask email] On. Behalf Of Chandrasekaran, Balachandran.
Sent: Wednesday, April 26, 2006 8:24 AM. To: [login to unmask email] Subject: Re: [DB2-L] Restart of a Load Resume Yes Log No - DB2 v7 on. just wanted to confirm again so that I am not missing any chance ! I. never thought RESUME YES LOG NO is such a dangerous thing to do. I remember the saving private ryan shaking, CA manual still says SPACE DEFN YES doesn't work for.
RESUME kind of Load. Correct me if I am wrong. Welcome to Business Standards to the, the IDUG DB2-L list. To unsubscribe, go to the archives and home page at http://www.idugdb2-l.org/archives/db2-l.html. From that page select Join or Leave the list.
The IDUG DB2-L FAQ is at http://www.idugdb2-l.org. The IDUG List Admins can be reached at [login to saving shaking, unmask email] Find out the latest on IDUG conferences at http://conferences.idug.org/index.cfm. under RECOVERNG A FAILED LOAD JOB. Mind you, it does contradict your. Product Manager, DB2. Tel: +44 (0)161 928 9334. Fax: +44 (0)161 941 3775. Mobile: +44 (0)7970 125 752. [login to unmask email] From: DB2 Data Base Discussion List [mailto:[login to unmask email] On. Behalf Of Sorensen Henrik (KSFA 321)
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says, in Banking Services Customers, the section on restarting the LOAD utility Any job that. finished abnormally in the RELOAD, SORT, BUILD, or SORTBUILD phase. restarts from the beginning of the RELOAD phase. so you CAN'T do a. PHASE restart of the load! SYSCOPY table at private shaking hand the start of the RELOAD phase - snag is, it only does. that for a LOG YES load.
close to where the job ran and attempt a RECOVER TORBA. Product Manager, DB2. Tel: +44 (0)161 928 9334. Fax: +44 (0)161 941 3775. Mobile: +44 (0)7970 125 752. [login to unmask email]
From: Grainger, Phil. Sent: 26 April 2006 12:50. To: 'DB2 Database Discussion list at IDUG' Cc: '[login to unmask email]' Subject: RE: [DB2-L] Restart of a Load Resume Yes Log No - DB2 v7 on. the tablespace, perhaps consolidating extents (if you have reached the. max extent limit) or adding a new candidate volume (if you have filled. the current volume).
It would help to know WHY you had your space abend. Product Manager, DB2. Tel: +44 (0)161 928 9334. Fax: +44 (0)161 941 3775. Mobile: +44 (0)7970 125 752. [login to Pfizerâ€™s Standards to the Global Business Codex, unmask email] From: DB2 Data Base Discussion List [mailto:[login to unmask email] On. Behalf Of Chandrasekaran, Balachandran. Sent: 26 April 2006 12:26.
To: [login to unmask email] Subject: [DB2-L] Restart of a Load Resume Yes Log No - DB2 v7 on Z/OS. load a non-empty table with RESUME YES LOG NO. The load failed in the. RELOAD phase and private shaking hand I had SORTKEYS specified so, the indexes were pushed to. REBUILD pending status as well. Replace. Assuming I don't have a Queisce point or ICOPY where I can. recover to, can't I save the table ? Using LOG NO with RESUME YES is.
such a dangerous scenario ? IS there an option in LOAD utility (I've. searched quite enough on manuals) which re-allocates files to new. catalog entries while restarting LOAD ? Welcome to the IDUG DB2-L list. To unsubscribe, go to the archives and. page select Join or Leave the list. The IDUG DB2-L FAQ is at. http://www.idugdb2-l.org. The IDUG List Admins can be reached at. [login to the motorcycle, unmask email] Find out the latest on saving hand, IDUG conferences.
Welcome to the IDUG DB2-L list. The Evolution Of Nursing Essay. To unsubscribe, go to the archives and home page at http://www.idugdb2-l.org/archives/db2-l.html. From that page select Join or Leave the list. The IDUG DB2-L FAQ is at http://www.idugdb2-l.org. The IDUG List Admins can be reached at [login to unmask email] Find out the latest on IDUG conferences at http://conferences.idug.org/index.cfm. As far as the internals of how this works, I don't believe the original records could have been rolled back since they were not logged, so my assumption is that DB2 is ryan shaking hand either keeping track of Banking for Personal Essay where it was at for the restart, or tracking the first page built by shaking hand the load so it knows where to start-over at. Sent: Wed 5/3/2006 10:04 PM. To: [login to unmask email]
Subject: Re: [DB2-L] Restart of the motorcycle diaries a Load Resume Yes Log No - DB2 v7 on Z/OS. the SYSCOPY table at the start of the RELOAD phase - snag is, it only. does that for saving ryan shaking a LOG YES load. from RELOAD phase when it abends in mentioned phases whatever the. RESTART parameter be given on re-run.
But, I feel the DB2 rolls back the. Re-loaded records automatically (for both LOG YES and LOG NO options). Banking Essay. I. tell you this because, when I reloaded the file, it started from COUMT=0. and no records were thrown duplicates. So, I am safe and no data might. be lost in this case.
From: Grainger, Phil [mailto:[login to unmask email] Sent: Wednesday, April 26, 2006 6:31 PM. To: DB2 Database Discussion list at shaking IDUG. Cc: Chandrasekaran, Balachandran. Subject: RE: [DB2-L] Restart of a Load Resume Yes Log No - DB2 v7 on.
Hmm, you know - I think I might have been guilty of thinking what DB2. should do rather than what it does do! and I've been to the v8 utility guide to check something out. There it. says, in the section on restarting the LOAD utility Any job that. finished abnormally in Identity, the RELOAD, SORT, BUILD, or SORTBUILD phase. restarts from the beginning of the RELOAD phase. so you CAN'T do a.
PHASE restart of the load! SYSCOPY table at the start of the RELOAD phase - snag is, it only ryan shaking, does. that for a LOG YES load. close to Comparing Pfizerâ€™s Business Business Codex, where the job ran and attempt a RECOVER TORBA. Product Manager, DB2.
Tel: +44 (0)161 928 9334. Fax: +44 (0)161 941 3775. Mobile: +44 (0)7970 125 752. [login to unmask email] From: Grainger, Phil. Sent: 26 April 2006 12:50. To: 'DB2 Database Discussion list at IDUG'
Cc: '[login to saving shaking, unmask email]' Subject: RE: [DB2-L] Restart of a Load Resume Yes Log No - DB2 v7 on. the tablespace, perhaps consolidating extents (if you have reached the. max extent limit) or adding a new candidate volume (if you have filled. the current volume). Biography. It would help to know WHY you had your space abend. Product Manager, DB2. Tel: +44 (0)161 928 9334. Fax: +44 (0)161 941 3775.
Mobile: +44 (0)7970 125 752. [login to unmask email] From: DB2 Data Base Discussion List [mailto:[login to unmask email] On. Behalf Of Chandrasekaran, Balachandran. Sent: 26 April 2006 12:26. To: [login to unmask email] Subject: [DB2-L] Restart of a Load Resume Yes Log No - DB2 v7 on Z/OS. load a non-empty table with RESUME YES LOG NO. The load failed in the. RELOAD phase and I had SORTKEYS specified so, the indexes were pushed to. REBUILD pending status as well.
Replace. Assuming I don't have a Queisce point or ICOPY where I can. recover to, can't I save the table ? Using LOG NO with RESUME YES is. such a dangerous scenario ? IS there an option in saving ryan, LOAD utility (I've. searched quite enough on manuals) which re-allocates files to new. catalog entries while restarting LOAD ? Welcome to Influece, the IDUG DB2-L list. Saving Shaking. To unsubscribe, go to the archives and. page select Join or Leave the The Evolution, list. The IDUG DB2-L FAQ is saving private ryan at. http://www.idugdb2-l.org. Comparing Pfizerâ€™s Business Business. The IDUG List Admins can be reached at.
[login to unmask email] Find out the latest on IDUG conferences. Welcome to saving private, the IDUG DB2-L list. To unsubscribe, go to the archives and home page at http://www.idugdb2-l.org/archives/db2-l.html. From that page select Join or Leave the Pfizerâ€™s Business Global Standards, list. The IDUG DB2-L FAQ is at http://www.idugdb2-l.org.
The IDUG List Admins can be reached at [login to unmask email] Find out the private ryan shaking hand, latest on Services for Personal Customers Essay, IDUG conferences at http://conferences.idug.org/index.cfm. entity to saving shaking, which it is addressed, and Biography Augustine may contain information that is. privileged, confidential and exempt from saving private ryan shaking hand disclosure under applicable law. If you are not the for Personal, intended recipient, any dissemination, distribution or. copying of this communication is strictly prohibited.
If you have. received this communication in error, please notify us immediately by. reply email to [login to unmask email] and ryan hand delete or destroy all copies of. the original message and attachments thereto. Email sent to of Nursing, or from ryan shaking hand the. Principal Financial Group or any of its member companies may be retained. as required by for Personal Customers Essay law or regulation. for purposes of the Uniform Electronic Transactions Act (UETA) or the. Electronic Signatures in shaking hand, Global and National Commerce Act (E-Sign) unless a specific statement to the contrary is movie included in this message. Welcome to the IDUG DB2-L list.
To unsubscribe, go to private ryan hand, the archives and home page at of St. Augustine of Hippo Essay http://www.idugdb2-l.org/archives/db2-l.html. Private Shaking. From that page select Join or Leave the list. The IDUG DB2-L FAQ is at http://www.idugdb2-l.org. The IDUG List Admins can be reached at [login to unmask email] Find out the Augustine, latest on IDUG conferences at http://conferences.idug.org/index.cfm. 330 North Wabash, Suite 2000 | Chicago, IL 60611-4267.
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30 Book Report Templates #038; Reading Worksheets. Reading helps students develop a strong imagination, encourages their creativity, and strengthens their analytical skills. Teachers assign a lot of book reports to ensure that students read lots of books, especially at that critical early age when they are still trying to master the written word. To cut down on some of the workload, students and teachers can find a book report template to private ryan shaking download and fill in. This gives more time to enjoy the act of reading, so students can become life long learners. A book report is typically given as an assignment to students in elementary and middle school. Students fill out a form answering basic questions about the book they were assigned to Banking read. Turning in the report serves as proof to the teacher that the student read the book and, hopefully, got something out of it.
These reports may ask students to detail what the book was about, the names of the main characters, what the theme of the book is, and where the events are set. Some reports may ask specific questions about events or characters to ensure that the students read the book all the saving ryan shaking, way through. The report can also help students understand the book better by movie asking them to think about its meaning and the plot. Teachers may also hand out worksheets for students to complete in class or as homework. These are usually limited to the earlier grades when students are still learning to read.
Reading worksheets ask simple questions about the book without requiring multiple sentence answers. Private Hand! These questions may ask students to name a favorite character, or mention the main conflict in a few words. It’s not uncommon for The Evolution of Nursing Essay, the teacher to read a picture book with the class and have students fill out a worksheet afterwards. If the classroom has a bookshelf, there may also be a ‘Reading Time’ when students pick out a book to read. When they finish, the students fill out the worksheet and submit it to saving private shaking their teacher. Of Hippo! Book report forms are a popular choice of private hand, assignment for Banking for Personal Essay, elementary school classes. Ryan Hand! These forms make it simple for students to complete the report by filling out the worksheet. These sheets can be generic with standard questions, or teachers may create a unique sheet with questions specific to each different book that is assigned. These forms also help introduce students to the idea of a book report format and show them what kind of information may be expected on longer, multi-page reports that they are expected to complete in the higher grades. A form is also easier to grade, especially for teachers who have a large classroom and more assignments to go over than usual. A simple book report features a few sections that ask students to that a Healthy Heart answer questions in paragraph format.
These each ask students to detail a different element of the book. All book report forms will ask for private, the title, author name, and Services Essay the illustrator’s name, if it is a picture book. The other elements on a simple form include: Setting – This is where the book’s events took place, i.e. New York. Characters – A list of who the hand, main characters are and their names.
Plot – A basic overview of the major events in the book. Your impressions – Whether you like the book or not, and why. A simple form may also just ask the The Evolution Essay, students to describe the beginning, middle, and end events of the saving hand, book in Services for Personal Customers three questions. Students may also be expected to identify the climax, which is the most intense point of the book where the ryan, main character’s problems are resolved or made worse. This helps get students thinking about the traditional progression of a plot. Eventually, teachers transition students to writing a multi-page book report. The report is usually written in a word processing software, like MS Word. Students can find book report format templates for Heart, these assignments too. These longer reports are written out in paragraph form. Saving Ryan! The teacher asks the Factors that Influece a Healthy Heart, students to address different elements of a book in their own words or with their own formatting. A simple way to organize these reports is to saving private ryan hand divide them into three basic sections, the introduction, main body, and conclusion.
In the main body, students can create a different subheading for each element to Banking for Personal Customers Essay address. For instance, Introduction – The first paragraph; includes book title, author, genre, and private why you chose the book. Main Body – The middle part of the report; includes summary, theme, setting, and characters. Conclusion – A short summary of the Business Standards to the Standards, book report and opinion of the book. Difference Between The Book Report Types. The short book report form is handed out by the teacher and can be completed in saving private ryan one night like a homework assignment.
A multi-page report is created by the student and may take more than one night to finish. Short templates are available in moment in Australian lots of fun book report ideas suitable for young children. They have questions with a few lines to private hand write the answers in a few short sentences. Some templates may include activities to make them more interesting to students, such as having them draw out a scene from the book or re-write the of Hippo Essay, ending. Multi-page reports start out as two page reports and gradually increase in size through middle school and high school. Of course, those two page reports are just as difficult for young students as the five page reports are for high school students. The great thing about these assignments is that students are usually free to organize their book report ideas however they desire. They can create bold sub-headers for the main body of the report. Students can write about the theme, characters, and setting separately. Saving Private Hand! Or they can leave out the headers and devote their report to a specific element, such as the book theme. This allows students to weave information about for Personal Customers characters and setting into saving private hand, the report where they are most relevant to the theme.
The former works well for short chapter books, and the latter is better for books that may feature multiple themes. Ideas for Factors that Heart, Different Kinds of Book Reports. There is more than one way to complete a book report. Both teachers and students may find these creative ideas more interesting than a straightforward report. Hand! Write a review of the book. Create the report in the form of a newspaper or blog review. Summarize the book without giving away the plot or the ending. Talk about what made you like it or, if you hated it.
Feel free to The Evolution give the book a thumbs up or down rating at the end. Do a diary. Saving Private Ryan Shaking Hand! Use a journal template to create a diary written by one of the main characters. There should be multiple entries that follow or discuss the events of the book from that character’s point of view. Interview one of the characters.
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Read and of Nursing mark the report. Read through the book report from beginning to end to get a feel for it overall. Get a brightly colored pen to mark any spelling or punctuation errors you find in the report. Young students may want to read through their reports with their parents or a tutor. Sometimes, teachers actually make students submit a rough draft of their reports for points before the final report is due. Saving Private Ryan Shaking! The teacher reviews the draft, makes edits, and Banking suggestions for shaking hand, changing the report before final submission.
Make edits to the report. Go back into the report file and make the easy grammar and spelling fixes. Take a look at your teacher’s suggestions or the The Evolution of Nursing, ideas you wrote down for things to change in saving private ryan hand the report. Create a plan to make those additions or changes. Make the changes to the report. Don’t forget to save your file as a separate document. For instance, save your rough draft as, Report1.doc, and this updated version as, Report2.doc. Review the report. Print out a fresh copy of the report. The Evolution! Read through it one more time looking for hand, spelling errors and grammar mistakes.
Keep an eye out for spots where the text doesn’t make sense. This can sometimes happen when you add new content to a report. If there are mistakes, fix them in the document file and review one more time. Your final draft is ready to of Nursing print out when you can no longer find any mistakes. Book reports are a big part of the saving ryan shaking, curriculum. That doesn’t mean they have to be a lot of work for the students or the teacher. Make assigning these reports less of a hassle with these tips. Assign one book for that Influece Essay, the entire class to read. This can cut down on the effort required in understanding submitted reports. Saving Hand! Pick out a short book report template to use.
There is no need to use valuable time in creating one from scratch. Print out more copies of the form than are needed. Some students may lose theirs and need an Banking Services for Personal Customers extra form. Make reminder announcements when a due date approaches. Remind students at least twice before a book report due date. Keep the word count requirement low. Teachers also have to spend more time reviewing longer reports. Consider creative alternatives to saving private hand some written reports. When your curriculum includes a lot of book reports, give students the option of The Evolution of Nursing, turning in a drawing, diorama, or another project as a break. Being assigned a book report to complete can seem like a daunting task, especially if if you have never written a multi-page report.
Make sure you don’t fall behind on the work by following a few of these tips. Shaking Hand! Make up a reading schedule to complete the book well in advance of the report being due. Use a calendar to remind yourself. Gallipoli: The Defining Moment Identity Essay! Assign yourself different steps to complete each night for the report, i.e. make an outline, write 200 words, or revising Ask the teacher for saving shaking, help with ideas if you can’t figure out of Nursing Essay, how to get started. Look for examples of completed reports to see how they are structured. Book reports vary in their length and ryan shaking complexity.
Elementary school students get simple, one page forms to fill in about the Biography of St. of Hippo, books they read. Those in middle school and high school usually have to write multiple page reports. Nearly all reports require students to talk about the saving private, plot, theme, characters, and how they liked the book. Both students and teachers can find a lot of templates to use. Those looking for something generic for students to fill in after reading a book can pick up a .pdf or .jpg form.
Those who want more control over the look and wording of the template should download a .doc file.
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copy pasted essay This is an online version of an article first published in Sir Robert Cotton as Collector: Essays on an Early Stuart Courtier and His Legacy , edited by C. J. Wright. Saving Private Shaking? London: British Library Publications, 1997: 391-454. 'Their Present Miserable State of Cremation': the Restoration of the Cotton Library. The aged overseer paused. 'Well, I doubt if you'd even understand it.
I don't. He seems to have found a method for restoring missing words and phrases to some of the old fragments of original text in Banking for Personal Customers, the Memorabilia. Perhaps the left-hand side of a half-burned book is saving private ryan shaking hand, legible, but the right-hand page is burned, with a few words missing at Biography of St. Augustine of Hippo, the end of each line. He's worked out a mathematical method for finding the saving shaking, missing words. It's not foolproof, but it works to Comparing Standards Business Standards Codex some degree'.
W.M. Miller, Jr., A Canticle for Leibowitz. The October 1731 number of the newly-established Gentleman's Magazine included the ryan hand, following notice in its reports of 'Casualties' for the month: 23 [Oct.]. A Fire broke out in the House of Mr Bently , adjoining to the King's School near Westminster Abbey , which burnt down that part of the Standards Global Business Standards Codex, House that contained the King's and ryan shaking hand Cottonian Libraries. Almost all the of St. Augustine, printed Books were consumed and part of the Manuscripts. Amongst the latter, those which Dr Bentley had been collecting for saving private ryan hand, his Greek Testament for these last ten years, valued at 2000 l.(2)
This short note, tucked away between reports of the discovery of a disfigured corpse near Bath and an accidental shooting at Hackney, records what was perhaps the greatest bibliographical disaster of modern times in Britain. In Australian Identity Essay? It is difficult to quantify the scale of the private ryan hand, losses to the Cotton library as a result of the fire at the motorcycle diaries movie, Bentley's residence, Ashburnham House. A number of private shaking, letters preserve colourful anecdotes about the fire, such as the famous story of Dr Bentley escaping from the flames in nightgown and wig with Codex Alexandrinus under his arms,(3) but the most detailed source of Services Customers Essay, information about the fire and the damage inflicted by it is a report by a parliamentary committee established to saving private ryan hand investigate the Essay, incident, which was published in 1732.(4) This contained two valuable appendices. The first was 'A Narrative of the saving shaking hand, Fire. and of St. Augustine of Hippo Essay of the Methods used for preserving and recovering the Manuscripts of the Royal and private shaking hand Cottonian libraries',(5) compiled by the Reverend William Whiston the younger, the Services, clerk in charge of the records kept in the Chapter House at Westminster, another notorious firetrap.(6) The second was a list of lost and damaged manuscripts, prepared by David Casley, the deputy librarian of both the Royal and saving private ryan hand Cotton libraries, with the The defining moment Identity Essay, assistance of Whiston. (7) Casley's list was afterwards reprinted in summary form, with a few amendments, in his 1734 catalogue of the Royal Library.(8) Whiston stated that the Cotton library contained before the shaking, fire 958 manuscript volumes, of which 114 were 'lost, burnt or intirely spoiled' and another 98 so damaged as to be defective.(9) These figures have invariably been cited in accounts of the Cotton fire. They are, however, misleading. In one sense, they overstate the amount of damage. Many of the manuscripts reported as lost by Whiston and Casley were in fact preserved as fragments or 'burnt lumps' which were beyond the reach of eighteenth-century conservation technology but were successfully restored during the nineteenth century.(10) Consequently, the Business Standards Standards, majority of manuscripts reported as lost in 1732 are available for consultation today.
In fact, only thirteen manuscripts were utterly destroyed in the Cotton fire, mostly from the Otho press.(11) Although relatively few complete volumes were destroyed, many manuscripts lost important articles or survive only as charred fragments. In this sense, the details given by Whiston and Casley underestimate the damage. Saving Private Hand? In particular, many of the manuscripts said by Casley to have survived the fire intact actually suffered serious damage. One of the most famous victims of the fire was the manuscript containing the unique exemplar of Beowulf , Vitellius A. XV.(12) The edges of Business Business, this manuscript were badly scorched and the vellum left very brittle. Private Hand? Its subsequent handling caused serious textual loss. This manuscript is not, however, included in Casley's list of those damaged in the fire. Tiberius A. III is a composite volume containing various eleventh-century items mostly of Services Customers Essay, Canterbury origin, including St Æthelwold's translation of the Rule of St Benedict, works by Ælfric and one of the saving ryan shaking, two surviving copies of the Regularis Concordia , prefaced by moment National Identity, a famous drawing of King Edgar with St Dunstan and St Æthelwold.(13) This volume was also said by saving, Casley to have survived the of Nursing, fire unharmed, but again there was damage to the edges of the folios and saving ryan the water used to put out the fire caused staining. The drawing of King Edgar had become warped and buckled. In the absence of any meaningful statistics, the best way of conveying the catastrophic nature of the losses in the Ashburnham House fire is by a random roll call of some of the victims.(14) Cotton's pride and joy, the fifth-century Greek Genesis (Otho B. VI), one of the earliest illustrated Christian manuscripts in existence, was reduced to a pile of Banking Services Customers, cinder-like fragments.(15) Cotton possessed two of the four surviving letters patent of King John recording the grant of Magna Carta.
One of these, now Cotton Charter XIII. 31a, was the only one with the Great Seal still attached. In the heat, not only was the text damaged but the seal was left as a shapeless blob.(16) The bull confirming the title 'Defender of the Faith' on Henry VIII (now Vitellius B. Saving Private Ryan? IV*) was reduced to half a dozen greatly shrunken and distorted fragments. Otho A. XII contained unique exemplars of two key texts for the Anglo-Saxon period, Asser's Life of Alfred and The Battle of Maldon , together with other Old English material.(17) Although 40 folios of the original 155 were eventually recovered, both Asser and Gallipoli: The defining moment National Essay Maldon perished completely. Among the chronicle texts which were lost or very badly damaged were the earliest manuscript of Gildas (Vitellius A. VI),(18) the 'G' manuscript of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle in Otho B. XI,(19) and the only extant manuscript of Æthelweard's chronicle (Otho A. X).(20) Cartularies from such houses as Lenton (Otho B. XIV),(21) St Albans (Otho D. III) and St Augustine, Canterbury (Otho B. XV), were also lost or very badly damaged, as well as such historical texts as the earliest copy of the Burghal Hidage, part of Otho B. XI.(22) Among the hand, illuminated manuscripts ruined in Services for Personal Customers Essay, the fire might be singled out a portion of an early eighth-century gospel book from Northumbria, Otho C. Ryan Hand? V, if only because another fragment of this manuscript survives intact in Cambridge, Corpus Christi College, MS 197B, and shows that it was an insular gospel-book from the greatest period of Northumbrian illumination.(23) These are mostly medieval examples. The devastation caused to Services Cotton's early modern historical collections was probably as great, but has been less thoroughly documented.
It is a measure of the richness of Cotton's library that, despite such losses, it still remains an incomparable source for the history, literature and art of medieval and Tudor England. On the morning after the fire, Little Dean's Yard in Westminster must have been a sad sight. Saving Shaking Hand? Ashburnham House was a smouldering ruin. The ground was littered with fragments of burnt manuscripts, which the boys of Westminster School picked up and kept as souvenirs.(24) As the manuscripts had been rescued from the flames, they had been taken to various rooms in Gallipoli: The defining National, Westminster School. Shaking Hand? When the fire had finally been put out, they were assembled in the great boarding house of the The Evolution, school, opposite Ashburnham House.
Two days later, they were transferred to a recently completed building intended as a new dormitory for the school.(25) These operations were supervised by the Speaker, Arthur Onslow, a Cotton trustee, who on hearing of the fire had rushed from his house nearby to help save the private ryan, manuscripts. Services? Onslow summoned together a group of experts, including not only saving ryan, Bentley and Casley, but also keepers of such other record repositories as the Chapter House at Westminster, the Tower of London and the Exchequer, to consider how the damaged manuscripts could be conserved.(26) The deliberations of this group and the work subsequently undertaken were recorded by Factors that a Healthy Heart Essay, William Whiston in his appendix to private ryan hand the 1732 parliamentary report.(27) Although Whiston's report is Biography of Hippo Essay, well known, little notice has been taken in descriptions of individual Cotton Manuscripts of the impact of the emergency conservation work undertaken immediately after the fire, when a number of manuscripts were broken up and rebound. Saving Private Ryan Shaking Hand? It seems likely that, in the process, leaves were not reassembled in of St. of Hippo Essay, the correct order and the collation of some volumes permanently disrupted. This important stage in the codicological history of many Cotton Manuscripts has been generally overlooked. It is therefore worth describing in some detail the saving hand, procedures adopted by Whiston and his colleagues. It is difficult nowadays, looking at of St. of Hippo Essay, the collection after more than two hundred years of conservation work, to imagine the scale of the problem confronting Speaker Onslow's panel of experts.
The picture which comes to mind is saving private ryan shaking, of a huge collection of loose charred fragments, but the pattern of damage caused by the fire and 'engine-water' was more complex.(28) The vellum manuscripts had frequently stayed together as a single unit, but had warped and shrunk in the heat, each codex rolling up into a misshappen ball. Animal fat had been drawn out from the vellum by the heat and then congealed, turning the manuscript into a glutinous mass, blackened around the edges. As it cooled, the manuscript became very brittle. One Royal manuscript burnt in the fire, deliberately left unconserved, preserves some idea of the appearance of these extraordinary objects.(29) It looks like an irradiated armadillo. Moreover, as is still the case with library fires, the water used to extinguish the blaze had caused as much damage as the flames.(30) The paper manuscripts in particular were sodden and urgently needed drying, as there was a risk of mould.(31) Initial conservation work began on 1 November 1731, just over Augustine of Hippo a week after the fire.(32) The stained and saving private shaking hand damp paper manuscripts, mostly sixteenth-century State Papers, were disbound, and a bookbinder employed to clean the leaves and wash them in Banking Services Essay, an alum solution. A number of presumably unskilled assistants were hired to turn over the leaves to prevent the formation of mould.
The leaves were hung on private ryan, lines to dry and afterwards bound up again. It was found that the wet vellum manuscripts could be satisfactorily dried by leaving them open on the floor and regularly turning the leaves. The worst affected were dried in front of a fire. A few vellum manuscripts were disbound and the folios hung up on lines in groups of two or three to dry. Unfortunately, Whiston does not specify which manuscripts were treated in Gallipoli: The defining in Australian National Identity, this way. The rescue team next tackled those manuscripts which had suffered more from fire and heat than water. Where possible, the burnt vellum manuscripts were opened up leaf by leaf and ryan shaking 'the glutinous Matter, that had been forced out upon Biography Augustine Essay the Edges of the Vellum and Parchment by the Heat of the saving shaking hand, Fire, was carefully taken off by the Fingers. '.(33) Despite Whiston's claim that, except for a few of minor value, all the damaged vellum manuscripts had been treated in this way, it seems that little progress was made. The Evolution Of Nursing? Later descriptions of the ryan hand, collection all confirm that the burnt vellum manuscripts were in a particularly bad condition.(34) In any case, the treatment described by Whiston would hardly have left these manuscripts in a fit condition for use. The burnt paper manuscripts were an easier proposition. The individual leaves were washed, cleaned and hung up to dry.
Afterwards, the leaves were 'several Times looked over; and the Pieces, that were Parts of the same Book, were laid together, as much as could be found.'(35) Whiston stated that, from the surviving paper fragments, 'several large Portions of Books, and some entire Books have been made up out of that a Healthy Heart Essay, them'.(36) Whiston does not identify these eighteenth-century reconstructions of Cotton Manuscripts. He urged that, when a volume had been recovered in this way, 'each Book or Portion of Book, so collected together, should be carefully collated, and the Leaves placed, as near as possible, in private ryan hand, the same Order, that they were in before the Gallipoli: The defining in Australian Identity Essay, Fire'.(37) Despite these efforts, a large number of 'single Leaves, or Pieces of Leaves' remained unidentified, and saving private shaking hand were put into Business Standards to the Standards drawers. These included many fragments of burnt vellum manuscripts and indeed the more intractable 'burnt lumps' of vellum. Whiston proposed that these fragments be arranged 'into Covers or Drawers, according to the respective Subjects they treat of, that so the saving hand, least Fragment may not be lost'.(38) It does not seem that this far-sighted proposal was implemented. The initial rescue work was conducted at enormous speed.
It had been largely completed by the time Whiston submitted his report on 20 January 1732, within three months of the fire. Inevitably there must be doubts about the accuracy of work undertaken with great haste, partly by Banking Customers, unskilled assistants, in primitive conditions and without the aid of modern bibliographical tools. Later workers on the collection commented that it had suffered 'by the carelessness of those that have been the first employed in preserving them'.(39) Whiston does not specify how individual manuscripts were treated, but the general figures he provides indicate that about a third of the volumes in the collection were subjected to this rough and ready conservation work.(40) The labours of Whiston and his colleagues already place a very great gulf between the modern user of the saving private shaking hand, Cotton library and the library as it existed before the fire. The Evolution Essay? In discussing the collation of any Cotton manuscript which shows signs of severe damage from damp, it is saving private ryan shaking, worth remembering that in 1731 the manuscript may have been taken apart and the leaves hung up on that Influece Essay, washing lines by an illiterate artisan. Whiston and his fellow workers stand as the first of shaking hand, a series of intermediaries between the modern scholar and Gallipoli: The defining the original Cotton library. They inaugurated a process of conservation work on the collection which has continued intermittently to the present day. Just as the story of the Cotton collection to saving private shaking 1731 was one of growth and Influece Heart Essay development, so its history since then has been one of successive attempts to restore the collection to its pre-fire state. Historical and literary scholars have throughout this time given manuscript evidence an increasingly elevated status. For many, the original manuscript has served as a touchstone, a firm fixed point to which scholars can return when they are buffeted by the cross-currents of intellectual debate.
In the case of the private, Cotton collection, however, the manuscripts themselves have undergone a process of evolution and Influece a Healthy Essay change as successive curators have sought to restore them to saving private shaking their original state. In a number of cases, a particular manuscript is The defining National Essay, little more than an intelligent reconstruction of the original, comparable to, and just as open to doubt and challenge as, say, an archaeological reconstruction.(41) Whiston's concern that each manuscript fragment from the Cotton library should be carefully preserved was echoed in more elevated language by the Reverend Thomas Fitzgerald, the Usher of private hand, Westminster School, in his lines Upon the Burning of the Cottonian Manuscripts at Ashburnham House .(42) Fitzgerald reflects on how these 'learned Spoils of twice a thousand years' had survived Goths, Vandals and, even more dangerous in of Hippo, Fitzgerald's view, 'reforming Zeal', only to perish in private ryan, a fire. In the climax of the poem, Fitzgerald called for each fragment to be treated as if it was a holy relic: Whate'er the Fury of the Flames has spar'd. With zealous Care, with awful Rev'rence guard . Each Code, each Volume, ev'ry Fragment Prize: As Rome her Relicks sav'd from Times of Old: With Gems profusely decks, and shrines in Gold; Tho' none like these, with all her Pomp and Cost, Or Rome, or all her Vatican can boast. Despite these poetic injunctions, nothing was done for the further preservation of the Cotton library following the Gallipoli: moment in Australian National Essay, publication of the parliamentary report in shaking, 1732. The manuscripts languished in their temporary accommodation in Westminster School for another twenty years. Banking? During this time, the building where the library was stored became known as the 'Old Dormitory' and Casley, the Library's custodian, became senile. The only immediate effect of the catastrophe at Ashburnham House appears to have been to encourage the first moves in 1751 for the publication of Domesday Book, then kept in saving ryan, the Westminster Chapter House and National also at great risk from fire.(43) In 1743, Major Arthur Edwards, a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries and enthusiastic amateur archaeologist,(44) left seven thousand pounds 'to erect a house in saving private, which to preserve the Cotton Library, or should such a house have meantime been provided, to purchase manuscripts, books of antiquities, ancient coins, medals and other curiosities to come to the Library'.(45) Edwards's bequest was, however, subject to a life interest and did not become available until 1769.(46) Edwards also left his books and pictures as additions to the motorcycle diaries the library.(47) It was through the intervention of another Edwards, Vigerus Edwards, that the collections of the record scholar and historian of the Exchequer Thomas Madox were deposited with the Cotton library.(48) The Edwards and Madox deposits represent perhaps the last vestiges of the idea that the Cotton library might form the nucleus of a national historical archive.(49)
The future of the Cotton library was finally secured in 1753 by the establishment of the British Museum as a result of Sir Hans Sloane's bequest. With other manuscript collections in national ownership it was transferred to the custody of the Trustees of the new Museum.(50) One of private hand, their first actions was to inspect the collections placed in their charge. On 2 February 1754 a committee of the Trustees visited the Old Dormitory to Biography Augustine examine the Cotton Library.(51) They found that Casley was by now 'disabled by age and infirmity from executing the duty of his post in his own person' and private hand his responsibilities were discharged by his wife, who showed the library to visitors. It was presumably at about this time that Mrs Casley gave a visitor to Biography of St. of Hippo the library a handful of private shaking, burnt fragments as a souvenir.(52) Casley was also assisted by Pfizerâ€™s to the Business, Richard Widmore, the Keeper of the library of Westminster Abbey, who undertook detailed work on saving, the charters, probably the most confused part of the collection. Banking For Personal Customers Essay? Despite the private ryan shaking, decrepit condition of the librarian, the committee seemed satisfied with what it found.
They declared that the Old Dormitory 'though it has not the advantage of so much light, as would be proper for a library. is dry and secured from the The Evolution Essay, weather. The MSS. Saving Private Ryan Shaking Hand? as well as the books [presumably Major Edwards's legacy together with the remnants of Cotton's own printed books] appear to have sustained no injury from damp since the Biography Augustine of Hippo Essay, depositing them there, but they are in general so dusty that a speedy care of them is necessary in that respect'. Indeed, the committee felt that the shaking, Old Dormitory would provide suitable temporary accommodation for the Harley Manuscripts, 'if a proper person were appointed for of St., the custody and care of that collection'. The transfer of the Harley Manuscripts to the Old Dormitory proved unnecessary since the Trustees shortly afterwards purchased Montagu House in Great Russell Street to accommodate the new Museum. The work necessary to prepare Montagu House to receive the saving hand, Museum's collections proved protracted, and it was not until 1756, immediately before the Comparing Pfizerâ€™s Business Standards to the Global Business Standards Codex, removal of the saving ryan hand, Cotton collection to Great Russell Street, that a more systematic examination was made of the Cotton library.
In July 1756, two Museum officers, Matthew Maty, the first Keeper of The Evolution Essay, Printed Books and from 1772 to 1776 Principal Librarian, and Henry Rimius, submitted two reports on the Cotton collection to the Trustees. The first was printed in an abridged form in Samuel Hooper's 1777 catalogue of the collection,(53) but the second has never been printed.(54) Maty and Rimius checked the collection against Smith's 1696 catalogue and Casley's list of manuscripts damaged in the fire, counting the volumes and comparing the ryan, contents of a sample from each press against the catalogue entries. They declared that the manuscripts in ten of the presses (Julius, Augustus, Claudius, Nero, Vespasian, Titus, Domitian, Cleopatra, Faustina and the Appendix) 'have suffered nothing by the fire, and Business Standards Codex have been found to agree with Mr Smith's catalogue. Yet several of these being placed in private, presses much exposed to Factors that Influece a Healthy Essay dampness in a cold and shady place, could hardly notwithstanding Mr Widmore's endeavours (which he has assured us have been very assiduous) be preserved from must and mouldiness and will want to be aired and carefully dried up before they are placed in the Museum'. The condition of the manuscripts in the presses more badly affected by the fire (Tiberius, Caligula, Galba, Otho and Vitellius) caused Maty and Rimius more concern. Shaking? They declared that they 'could not find some of the that Influece, articles specified by Mr Casley'. Some manuscripts which Casley reported as not badly damaged had indeed disappeared into the general stock of loose fragments, and did not resurface until the mid-nineteenth century. For example, Maty and Rimius were unable to find Tiberius D. Shaking? VI, a cartulary of of Nursing, Christchurch Priory, Hampshire, described in 1732 as a 'bundle of loose shrivell'd leaves' but otherwise largely intact.
This was not rediscovered until 1837, when Sir Frederic Madden found it among unsorted loose fragments from the hand, collection.(55) On the movie, other hand, they identified some manuscripts which Casley had been unable to trace, stating that 'several of ryan, those which he [Casley] declares to be entirely destroyed, may still be of some use in careful hands'. These discrepancies were worrying enough, but an that Influece Essay, even greater cause for saving ryan shaking, concern were the environmental conditions of some of the presses, particularly the Vitellius press. The Evolution Essay? 'Besides the damage done by the fire to the manuscripts in this press', Maty and Rimius reported, 'it has suffered no less by the carelessness of those that have been the first employed in saving private shaking, preserving them, as well as by the extraordinary moistness of the place. The great humidity, together with the Gallipoli: moment National Essay, extension of saving, that hue, which the fire extracted from the volumes wrote on vellum, having rolled the edges of most of them, defaced the marks [presumably the pressmarks] and afforded both lodging and food to numberless shoals of of St. Augustine of Hippo, worms and other insects.' The second report dealt with the surviving 'charters, curiosities co.' in saving ryan hand, the last press of the Cottonian cabinet. Maty and Rimius complained that 'The charters, warrants, deeds and other records contained in the last press of the Cottonian cabinet might have been examined with more ease and in less time had we found them disposed in any order, properly endorsed, or at least regularly numbered and sufficiently described'.
This necessitated an The defining National Essay, examination of each item and a preliminary numeration of every one 'by which they could more easily be found out'. They were assisted in this by a draft catalogue prepared by Widmore.(56) The unnamed press containing the charters was divided into two parts. Sixteen drawers in the top section and seven in the lower were stuffed with paper and parchment including several 'entirely relative to the Cotton family' which Maty and Rimius felt were 'of little use to saving hand the public'. There were, nevertheless, several 'capital pieces', including the burnt Magna Carta. The Defining In Australian National Essay? This, they reported, was 'still very legible, and would be much more so had anything been done to repair the damages done by this dreadful accident'. It was placed by itself 'in a separate drawer, viz. no. 16 at the bottom'. This press also contained a further three or four drawers filled with antiquities and saving private ryan 'other trinkets neither remarkable for their rareness or workmanship'.
The most interesting part of this second report is, however, the statement that some charters had been lost 'amidst the rubbish of bits of parchment or of paper, scorched by the fire, or consumed by old age, which Mr Widmore thought too much destroyed to be either used or described'. These were the fragments which Whiston and his colleagues had been unable to place in The Evolution of Nursing, 1731, and had put to one side. Saving Private Ryan Hand? They had been preserved as Whiston proposed, but not in the systematic way he envisaged. Business To The Global Business Standards? Indeed, as has been noted, some of the manuscripts successfully identified in 1731, such as the Christchurch Cartulary, had been stuffed away with the fragments. Widmore apparently thought the saving private ryan shaking hand, fragments should be disposed of, but Maty and Gallipoli: The defining moment Identity Rimius wisely urged 'a more particular examination' before any further action, 'as it is not impossible but some things may still be retrieved'. The Cotton Manuscripts were removed to the Museum in the first half of 1757.(57) Unlike the saving private hand, Sloane or Harley Manuscripts which were shelved according to subject classifications, they were arranged on Comparing to the Global Standards, shelves there by the existing 'emperor' pressmark system.(58) The Museum officers were unhappy about this arrangement, which they regarded as inelegant and unscientific. On 12 July 1757 it was reported to the Trustees that 'The Cottonian Library has been removed into ryan hand the new wired presses, in the same order in Business Standards Global Business Codex, which the manuscripts stood in the old; without regard to the intermixture of tall and short books, which necessarily is private hand, thus made upon the motorcycle diaries movie the same shelf'.
It was suggested it would be better to 'range them all anew'. The Trustees nevertheless resolved that the manuscripts should 'for the present continue in the order they now stand'.(59) As for the burnt manuscripts, it was reported that those 'which have been ascertained by the Catalogue, stand likewise in their order', suggesting that most of the items noted as usable by Casley were put in their appropriate places in the emperor sequence.(60) The 'other crusts and loose leaves' were however kept in the old presses, presumably the drawers formerly containing the charters which had been brought to the Museum. It was recommended that the shaking hand, Standing Committee should be empowered 'to imploy fit persons, if any such can be found, to restore those that are least damaged, as far as they are capable of it; and to remove those that shall be judged totally irrecoverable, into Gallipoli: The defining National Essay close presses to be kept by themselves'. Approving this proposal, the saving ryan, Trustees ordered that any material found to be beyond repair 'be for the present placed in the closet of the room where the Harleian Carts. Movie? now stand'.(61) The loose Cotton fragments remained associated with the Harley Charters and in 1775 the saving private ryan hand, Trustees ordered that these latter 'be removed in their presses as they now stand into one of the front garrets'. The fragments remained with these charters in Garret no. 8, which became known as the charter garret.(62)
In July 1757, a Mr Mores, perhaps the typographical historian Edward Rowe Mores, wrote to the Principal Librarian claiming to have developed a method of Banking Services for Personal Customers Essay, restoring the saving hand, leaves of vellum books damaged by The Evolution Essay, fire. Ryan Shaking Hand? Mores was authorized to examine the damaged Cotton Manuscripts, but nothing came of his overtures.(63) In February 1758, Maty showed the Standing Committee a specimen of some loose sheets of fire damaged parchment restored by Mr Padeloup, a French bookbinder.(64) Impressed, the committee ordered the Keeper of Heart, Manuscripts, Charles Morton, to saving ryan shaking hand give Padeloup one of the burnt Cotton Manuscripts. Factors That A Healthy? A month later Padeloup returned the manuscript duly repaired. His work was judged satisfactory, but the price he proposed, three shillings for every dozen sheets, was considered prohibitive and the project suspended.(65) Thus matters were left for ryan hand, another forty years. The fragments lingered with the Gallipoli: moment, Harleian charters in Room I on the Upper Floor of Montagu House.
It might be imagined that, now the burnt fragments were safely in saving private, the Museum, they were at least secure, but this was not the Biography Augustine, case, as can be seen from the sorry tale of the Cotton Genesis.(66) Casley reported that, after the fire, 'Of this valuable Monument of Antiquity, about saving ryan shaking hand, 60 pieces of Leaves remain'. In 1743, George Vertue had borrowed some to the motorcycle diaries movie make watercolour drawings of them to be shown at saving ryan shaking, the Society of Antiquaries. Engravings of these drawings were published in Vetusta Monumenta in 1747. These fragments then disappeared from sight. The Evolution? In 1778 Henry Owen, who had collated the manuscript before the fire, stated that the fragments of the Genesis preserved from the fire had been lost.(67) At the end of the eighteenth century, Joseph Planta could only find eighteen, none of saving private, which were among those copied by Vertue. In fact, the loss was due (at least in Influece, part) to a Museum officer, Andrew Gifford, the first Assistant Keeper of the Department of Manuscripts.(68) On his death in 1784, Gifford, a Baptist minister, left his collections to the Bristol Baptist College. It seems that, before he died, Gifford had been using four of the fragments from the Cotton Genesis copied by Vertue. Ryan? When his manuscripts and books were collected from the The Evolution of Nursing, Museum, these fragments were inadvertently taken with them to saving hand Bristol.
There they remained, unidentified and forgotten. In a 1795 catalogue of the Bristol library they were described as 'some pieces of an Pfizerâ€™s Business Standards to the Codex, old copy of the Septuagint said to have been found in the ruins of the city of Herculaneum'. They were only finally reidentified in 1834 by Frederic Gotch, who wrote to Hartwell Horne, an saving ryan hand, Under-Librarian at the Museum, pointing out their survival. Banking Customers Essay? Horne amended a footnote in saving shaking hand, one of his publications referring to the Cotton Genesis, but the Museum authorities took no further action.(69) Gotch's discoveries remained virtually unknown until 1881 when he published a transcription of the Services Customers, Bristol fragments as a supplement to Tischendorf's edition of the text of the fragments left in the Museum.(70) Five other fragments used by Vertue have never been traced.(71) In his diary for 13 March 1856,(72) the redoubtable Keeper of Manuscripts Sir Frederic Madden speculated that the lost fragments might also have been taken to Bristol with Gifford's books. However, they have never been identified there. Saving Private Shaking? More likely they were just thrown away when Gifford's belongings were disposed of. In 1928, the Bristol fragments were deposited on loan at the Museum, which finally reacquired them in 1962, nearly two hundred years after they had originally left the building.(73) In 1792, Thomas Astle, Keeper of Records at the Tower of Comparing Pfizerâ€™s Standards Codex, London, urged the Trustees to authorize the compilation of saving private, a new catalogue of the Biography of St. of Hippo, Cotton library.(74) Users of the Cotton collection were at this time still chiefly reliant on Smith's 1696 catalogue.
To establish if a manuscript had survived the fire, they had to cross-refer to Casley's 1732 list. In 1777 Samuel Hooper had produced a subject catalogue of the Cotton collection,(75) but, although he published the corrections of Maty and saving shaking Rimius to Casley's schedule of damaged manuscripts,(76) his work was of limited assistance to readers grappling with Smith and Casley. Accordingly, the Standing Committee of the Trustees ordered the Keeper of the motorcycle movie, Manuscripts, Joseph Planta, to investigate the matter. Saving Private Ryan? In his report, dated 14 December 1793,(77) Planta declared that most of the volumes contained a great number of articles 'bound up with very little attention to Business Standards Standards any arrangement either as to authors, matter or date'. This was particularly a problem with the State Papers which, according to shaking Planta, were collected according to countries but otherwise not arranged in any order.(78) He considered Smith's catalogue wholly deficient, both in its arrangement and in the lack of Gallipoli: The defining moment Essay, detailed descriptions of individual State Papers.
In Planta's view, a new catalogue was certainly required, preferably one following a subject classification. This would also provide an saving private ryan shaking, opportunity of rearranging the collection 'in a classical order, which no doubt ought always to have the preference'. Alternatively, the new catalogue should have a detailed index. Luckily, the Trustees were unwilling to see the collection rearranged. Nevertheless, they accepted the The defining moment National, need for a replacement for Smith, and instructed Planta to private shaking restore all those manuscripts capable of Gallipoli: The defining in Australian Identity Essay, repair and prepare a new catalogue.(79) The descriptive section of the catalogue was completed by November 1796.(80) The index was compiled between 1796 and 1802,(81) and the whole catalogue finally published by saving private shaking hand, the Record Commission in 1802.(82) The section of the Influece Heart, published preface describing the procedures adopted by Planta in conserving and cataloguing the manuscripts is copied almost word for word from a report submitted to the Trustees by him on 4 November 1796.(83) In this report, Planta gives a detailed account of the second phase of hand, major restoration work on the Cotton collection.
Planta states that 861 volumes had been brought to the Museum, of which 105 were damaged bundles in cases.(84) This indicates that he concentrated on those burnt manuscripts whose identity was readily ascertainable and which had been placed on their arrival in the Museum in the main emperor sequence. He did not attempt to tackle the mass of burnt fragments stored with the Harley Charters. The first problem which confronted him was that the damaged manuscripts in cases frequently consisted of loose unnumbered sheets or quires. The order of these sheets -- already disrupted as a result of the fire and the hasty rescue work in 1731 -- had been further confused by their use in the Reading Room. Planta complained that readers had thrown the manuscripts 'into great, and in many instances, irretrievable confusion'. Biography Of Hippo Essay? Consequently, his 'first care on entering on my task, was to saving private ryan hand cause all the volumes to be regularly paged, or at least the old paging to be regularly ascertained'.
This ink foliation can still be seen on many of the of St. Augustine, manuscripts.(85) The foliations are in a variety of different hands, and were probably made for Planta by various attendants in the Department.(86) Damage to the manuscript margins made it difficult to position the numbers and occasionally the foliators were forced to write them in the middle of the page.(87) Ink foliation notes are given at the end of the volumes, using the characteristic early Museum formula 'Constat fol.' Planta then 'proceeded to examine the bundles in cases, and found means, after many repeated and not a few unsuccessful attempts, to arrange several volumes and parts of volumes of State Papers. Saving Ryan Hand? Some of the shrivelled MSS. on vellum I likewise found capable of being restored, though not without great care and dexterity on the part of the bookbinder'. In his original report he identifies the binder as C. Elliot, the Museum binder from 1773 to 1815. By these means, fifty-one of the manuscripts kept in cases were restored and bound up as forty-four volumes. The remaining sixty-one bundles Planta considered 'irretrievable', but dismissed most of them as 'obscure tracts and fragments of little importance'. Planta's report gives an unduly rosy picture of the Gallipoli: moment Identity Essay, condition of the ryan, Cotton collection at the conclusion of his work. Little progress had been made with the damaged vellum manuscripts.(88) A number of important manuscripts were left as loose sheets in cases, including, for example, one of the Factors that a Healthy Heart Essay, earliest manuscripts of saving hand, Bede (Tiberius A. XIV).
These loose fragments may perhaps have been sheets which Planta and Elliot had managed to 'restore' by separating and to some extent flattening them. Many other manuscripts were left simply as 'crusts' in cases. Factors? Far from being 'obscure tracts and fragments of little importance', they included cartularies of St Albans (Tiberius E. VI, Otho D. III), St James, Northampton (Tiberius E. V), the Annals of Dunstable (Tiberius A. X), and saving private ryan shaking the eleventh-century Vitellius Psalter (Vitellius E. XVIII). Planta's caution arose from a concern that repairing and binding these damaged manuscripts might make matters worse. This is borne out by comments by two later Keepers of Manuscripts. In 1825 Sir Henry Ellis noted that fragments of Cotton Manuscripts had been 'placed in pasteboard cases because it was impossible to bind them without losing more than they had already lost of their respective texts'.(89) Similarly, in 1835 Josiah Forshall reminded a parliamentary Select Committee investigating the Museum that 'In many cases there is a great risk of in Australian National Essay, doing more injury by any attempt to repair a manuscript that has been damaged by the fire than if it is left in its damaged state'.(90) Like his predecessors in 1731, Planta concentrated on the paper manuscripts. Even here restoration was not as comprehensive as his report might suggest.
Such important paper manuscripts as the autograph manuscript of Buck's History of Richard III (Tiberius E. X), a volume of Joscelin's collections (Vitellius D. VII) and a valuable sixteenth-century copy of the Russian Primary Chronicle (Vitellius F. X)(91) were left as loose sheets in cases, as were some volumes of the private shaking, early State Papers such as Caligula D. IV, V, X and XI.(92) Planta's success in identifying and reconstituting the Comparing Business Global Standards Codex, paper manuscripts is difficult to establish. In some cases, he found fewer leaves from the saving shaking hand, manuscript than were reported as surviving in 1732. In others, he states that the number of folios in the manuscript was greater than that reported not only in 1732, but even in The Evolution of Nursing, Smith's 1696 catalogue.(93) These discrepancies may be partly due to private hand the rearrangement of papers, but may also suggest that Planta's methods for identifying loose papers and reuniting them with their parent volumes were less rigorous than might be hoped. The major defect of Planta's restoration work, however, was his failure to tackle any of the burnt fragments stored separately with the Harley Charters. Large portions of moment National Identity, many of the numerous manuscripts marked 'deest' or 'desideratur' by him were in fact sitting in a room not far from his study. Nowhere in saving private shaking hand, the catalogue is the existence of this material even hinted at.
Planta's complacent account of the state of the collection at the completion of his catalogue is therefore seriously misleading. It could even be argued that in the motorcycle diaries, some ways Planta's work made matters worse. The false impression his catalogue gave of the condition of the hand, manuscripts probably encouraged neglect of the loose unsorted fragments. In addition, the provision of a catalogue encouraged the use of brittle manuscripts, both bound and unbound, which were not in a fit state for public handling. The vulnerable edges of the diaries movie, manuscripts were completely unprotected, and pieces of text broke off as they were used by readers. Every time one of these damaged manuscripts was issued in the Reading Room, fragments of text were probably left all over the Museum. The effects of the continued handling of these fragile manuscripts have been most strikingly documented in the case of the Beowulf text in Vitellius A. XV. It seems reasonable to ryan assume that this was one of the 105 bundles in cases which Planta found at of St. Augustine, the beginning of his work. Private Ryan Hand? The state of the manuscript in the 1780s is The Evolution of Nursing, recorded in the two transcripts associated with the Danish antiquary Grmur Jnsson Thorkelin,(94) which record over 1900 letters which afterwards disappeared as a result of the crumbling of the edges of the manuscript.(95) Apparently, fragments of text were being lost even as the transcripts were being prepared.
The manuscript was probably bound by Elliot under Planta's supervision. Planta's catalogue entries usually indicated if a particular volume was kept in a case, and saving private ryan hand there is no such reference in The Evolution, his description of Vitellius A. XV.(96) Given the saving private, testimony of Ellis, Forshall and Planta himself as to the hazards of binding brittle vellum manuscripts, it seems likely that further damage to the Beowulf text occurred in the process of Services Customers, binding the manuscript in the 1790s. In 1817, John Conybeare made a detailed comparison between Thorkelin's 1815 edition of the poem and the original manuscript, marking the letters he could no longer see. According to Conybeare, over 900 letters had vanished by 1817.(97) A more accurate collation made by Sir Frederic Madden in 1824 shows even greater loss than that noted by Conybeare.(98) Much of the ryan shaking hand, damage to the manuscript in the early nineteenth century was due to unrestricted handling of it by readers. Ironically, both Conybeare and Madden, by handling the manuscript when making their collations, accelerated the decay.
The erosion of the Beowulf text continued until 1845, when the manuscript was inlaid, at Factors that Essay, last providing the fragile edges of the manuscript with some protection and preventing further loss. Presumably a number of other damaged Cotton Manuscripts suffered similar, if unrecorded, textual losses at this time.(99) Planta's successors as Keepers of Manuscripts, Robert Nares and Francis Douce, did not undertake any further work on the Cotton Manuscripts. The main sequence of Cotton Manuscripts remained with the Royal manuscripts in the seventh room of the upper floor of Montagu House, the private, last of the rooms containing manuscripts. Both collections remained in their original order, the 1808 synopsis of the Museum noting apologetically that 'These two libraries are not classed in a strict scientific order'.(100) At this time, the Cotton Manuscripts occupied twenty-one presses, six more than those allowed for by the Emperor system (including the Appendix as a separate case). The use of boxes to house some burnt manuscripts presumably made it difficult to follow the of Nursing Essay, system of one press per emperor.(101) This perhaps prompted the decision to write numerical pressmarks, consisting of a roman numeral for the press and a letter for the shelf, in ryan, pencil on the flyleaf of the manuscripts. Many of The defining in Australian National Essay, these old Montagu House pressmarks can still be seen on flyleaves of Cotton Manuscripts.(102) As long as manuscripts continued to be stored as loose vellum sheets in flimsy boxes, there were endless possibilities for ryan shaking, loss and confusion. In June 1825, Sir Henry Ellis, who succeeded Douce as Keeper of Manuscripts in 1812, reported to of St. of Hippo Essay the Trustees a misfortune with the autograph manuscript of Sir George Buck's History of Richard III (Tiberius E. X).(103) A reader called Yarnold had collated the Cotton manuscript with another in private hand, his possession. Of Nursing Essay? 'Having but one eye, and very indifferent sight in the other', Yarnold had accidentally taken away half a leaf of the Cotton manuscript with his own papers.
On discovering his mistake, he had returned the fragment. Sometime later, Yarnold's books were sold. One lot was described as a manuscript of Buck. When Ellis went to inspect this as a possible acquisition, he was horrified to saving private shaking discover that the Services for Personal, lot consisted of fourteen leaves of the saving private ryan hand, Cotton manuscript. He immediately claimed the a Healthy, leaves as Museum property, and returned them to their proper place.
Although the loose fragments and crusts stored with the Harley Charters had not been included in Planta's restoration efforts, they had not been forgotten by the Museum authorities. On 14 May 1825, the Standing Committee of the Trustees agreed that a small bundle of cinders and other fragments of Cotton Manuscripts should be sent to William Hyde Wollaston so that he could undertake experiments on them.(104) Wollaston was distinguished as a physiologist, chemist and physicist, who even anticipated some of Faraday's discoveries about electricity. Indeed, it was said that each of Wollaston's fifty-six papers in many different fields marked 'a distinct advance in saving private ryan, the particular science concerned'.(105) The reasons for Wollaston's interest in the Cotton fragments are unclear. His covering letters returning the fragments survive, but do not state what he did to them or how successful his experiments were.(106) In fact, whatever his experiments, the results were disastrous. The state of the leaves treated by Wollaston was described in Comparing Pfizerâ€™s Business Standards to the Standards, his diary by Sir Frederic Madden thirty years later: 'these leaves are almost like biscuit , and contracted to one third of their original size! Simply soaking them in water would have been much more effectual. Of these leaves sent to Dr. W. sixteen prove to be part of saving private shaking, Grosthead's Works in Otho D. X, and complete the Essay, volume ; while eleven others belong to the Higden, Otho D. Saving Private? I, and one to Vitellius E. IX'.(107) Madden later reported that he was able to counteract the effects of Wollaston's process by soaking the leaves in water, so that they expanded again to 'one half of their original size'.(108) Despite the unpromising results of The Evolution of Nursing Essay, Wollaston's first experiments, Ellis proposed in saving private ryan shaking, June 1825 that he be sent some fragments from the Cotton Genesis.(109) Ellis felt that these leaves would be particularly suitable for experiment, since this manuscript had not been as badly shrunken by the fire as others. He was confident that 'Dr Wollaston's experiments in this instance may produce some new or important readings for the commentators'.
This suggests that Wollaston was not attempting to flatten the fragments but trying to make them more legible by using some form of chemical agent. The results of his experiments on Banking for Personal, the Cotton Genesis are not known. Perhaps the hand, most revealing aspect of the affair is Gallipoli: The defining moment Identity, Ellis's statement to ryan the Trustees that the Cotton fragments 'do not form a Part of the Collection of Manuscripts at the present time but are kept in a garret at the top of the House, perfectly useless to Comparing Pfizerâ€™s Business Global the Museum in every sense of the word'.(110) Ellis was shortly to ryan be proved quite wrong. In January 1826, a few months after Wollaston had finished his further shrivelling of Cotton fragments, Henry Petrie, Keeper of Records at the Tower, wrote to the motorcycle diaries movie the Standing Committee of the Trustees, 'expressing a hope that some mode might be devised by which certain masses of the Fragments of the Cotton Library. which are at present preserved in private ryan shaking, cases, may be rendered readable without the risk of losing portions of their leaves from their adhesion and brittleness whenever an attempt is made to ascertain their contents'.(111) The Committee asked Sir Humphry Davy, a Trustee, to Pfizerâ€™s Standards Business Standards Codex talk to Petrie about the private ryan, problem.(112) A month later the Standing Committee 'Resolved that the movie, plan proposed by saving private shaking hand, Sir Humphry Davy of submerging the burnt manuscripts on Factors that Heart, vellum belonging to saving private ryan shaking hand the Cottonian collection which were injured in the fire of 1731 be adopted, from time to time, upon such MSS. as it may be desirable to examine: also that the edges of such manuscripts may be cut, where there is no writing, for Comparing Pfizerâ€™s to the Business Standards Codex, the sake of shaking hand, separating the leaves'.(113) On 12 May 1826, the Assistant Keeper of Manuscripts, Josiah Forshall, informed the Banking for Personal Customers, Trustees that 'The means recommended by the President of the Royal Society for the restoration of these MSS. have been employed with more complete success than could in the first instance have been reasonably anticipated.'(114) Tiberius D. III, a collection of saints' lives in which Petrie had expressed a particular interest, 'was first carefully divided into saving ryan shaking hand convenient portions, and these were severally immersed for a longer or shorter time as they appeared more or less scorched. This immersion and a very partial application of hot water made it practicable to separate the leaves, without any material injury. By making incisions between the columns and lines of writing, thus making room for an expansion of the parts most shrivelled and contracted by of St. Augustine, the fire, and by subsequently applying a gentle pressure until the moisture was evaporated, the leaves have been rendered sufficiently flat and smooth to admit of the contents being read for the most part with great facility'.(115) The process recommended by Davy was therefore to soak the manuscript to make it more pliable and then cut it open. Saving Private? The exact nature of the Gallipoli: The defining Essay, solution used to saving private ryan shaking hand soften the manuscript is for Personal Customers Essay, not known; Madden reported that it consisted of a solution of spirits of zinc and water.(116) Encouraged by their success with Tiberius D. Private Hand? III, Ellis and Forshall were keen to try and Gallipoli: The defining moment restore some of the fragments stored in saving private ryan hand, the charter garret.
Forshall immediately tried the technique on what 'appeared at Banking for Personal, first sight mere lumps of wax and saving private ryan shaking cinder'. After treatment, they proved to be twelfth and thirteenth century charters.(117) During June 1826, Ellis and Forshall sorted through the material in the garret to establish which fragments were worth treating. Ellis described to the Trustees how they had managed to trace nearly a hundred fragments from the Cotton Genesis, which had been placed in Pfizerâ€™s Business Standards to the Global, a separate box. Likewise, they 'sorted all the Fragments which are written in the Saxon language. ; they amount to some hundreds; these he [Ellis] has placed in another Box; many of them single, and many adhering to each other in thin close masses'.(118) Forshall bore the brunt of this difficult work,(119) which continued after he became Keeper in 1827.(120) About forty manuscripts were treated in this way.(121) The leaves were separated, partially flattened and stored loose in solander cases. Even after treatment the leaves still remained brittle, and were clearly still at great risk from careless handling in the Reading Room. Saving Hand? Madden afterwards described Forshall's efforts as a only 'very partial' attempt at restoration,(122) and this seems to have been a justified criticism. Nevertheless, substantial progress was made.(123) Forshall's work led to the recovery of a number of The Evolution of Nursing Essay, important Anglo-Saxon manuscripts which were described by Planta as being either lost or unusable. Ryan Shaking? Among the most spectacular rediscoveries were: the unique manuscript of King Alfred's prosimetrical translation of Boethius (Otho A. VI);(124) 131 leaves from the Old English translation of the Pastoral Care (Tiberius B. XI), one of only two extant contemporary manuscripts of the Old English translations associated with King Alfred; an eleventh-century copy of Werferth's Old English translation of the Dialogues of Gregory the Great (Otho C. Essay? I, vol. Saving Private Shaking? 2); the Vitellius Psalter (Vitellius E. XVIII), complete except for eleven leaves, ten of which were afterwards found by Madden; fragments of the insular gospels in The Evolution of Nursing, Otho C. V; two eleventh-century manuscripts of Ælfric's Homilies (Vitellius C. Ryan? V and Vitellius D. XVII); and a large part of Tiberius A. XV, a composite manuscript including an early eleventh-century copy of Essay, Alcuin's letters from Christ Church, Canterbury, and an eighth-century copy of Junilius.
Among the later manuscripts made available for scholars for the first time since the fire were a number of cartularies and an important manuscript of Layamon (Otho C. XIII).(125) Forshall also located extra leaves of manuscripts probably partly restored by Planta, such as the early Bede (Tiberius A. XIV) to which he added five leaves, and saving private the Worcester cartulary (Tiberius A. XIII). Most notable of all was the work on the Cotton Genesis. Although the 1732 report stated that sixty fragments of this manuscript had been identified after the fire, Planta could only trace eighteen. The Motorcycle Movie? In July 1826, Forshall reported that 110 fragments of the volume, previously among the loose fragments in the charter garret, had been identified, unrolled and cleaned, '88 of which it had been found possible to appropriate to their respective places.' These fragments were now 'ready to be numbered and saving private shaking deposited in cases secure from the motorcycle diaries movie future injury'.(126) Madden was afterwards to increase the ryan, number of fragments preserved to 147.(127) Madden's work in identifying and preserving this manuscript has long been recognized, but Forshall's major role has not been noted. As Forshall proceeded, he also added material recovered from the fragments to the Appendix manuscripts.(128) Above all, however, he also prepared detailed descriptions of the restored volumes, and proposed printing these in a supplement to Comparing Pfizerâ€™s Standards Global Standards Planta's catalogue.(129) A few of these survive, still unpublished, in copies made for Sir Frederic Madden and inserted in an annotated copy of Planta, preserved in the reference library of the Manuscripts Department.(130) Forshall is a forgotten pioneer in the restoration of the Cotton Manuscripts. Saving Private Ryan Hand? However, the conservation work undertaken during his Keepership used new techniques, and the results were not always completely satisfactory. Not only was the restoration incomplete, resulting in of Nursing Essay, a pile of loose brittle leaves in a box, but some unnecessary damage was caused.
In particular, vellum leaves were cut at the edge both to allow the fat-covered crusts to ryan be opened and The Evolution Essay individual leaves to be flattened. In subsequent restoration work these incisions were found to be unnecessary and ryan indeed to be a considerable hindrance to further repair of the leaves.(131) The incisions that Forshall had made account for Pfizerâ€™s Standards Global Business Standards, the serrated appearance of the leaves in many burnt Cotton Manuscripts, and are particularly visible in, for example, Otho B. II, a copy of Alfred's translation of the saving private shaking, Pastoral Care,(132) Otho C. XIII, an early copy of Layamon, and Otho C. I, volume one, an Anglo-Saxon translation of the Gospels. The greatest blot on Forshall's record in the conservation of the Cotton Manuscripts is the work on the burnt Magna Carta, Cotton Charter xiii. 31a. In May 1834, he drew the Trustees' attention to the condition of 'Magna Carta and the ancient and otherwise valuable charters in the Cottonian MS. Augustus A.II', pointing out that 'all these documents were suffering much injury, owing to the very imperfect manner in which they had originally been secured'.(133) Augustus II contained one of the greatest single concentrations of Anglo-Saxon charters. That Influece A Healthy Heart Essay? It is clear from a later report that Forshall was referring in saving ryan shaking hand, this minute to Banking Services the burnt Magna Carta rather than the other exemplar (Augustus II. 106).(134) This minute implies that the 136 varied documents with this pressmark were still bound as a single volume, which would inevitably have caused damage to them. Forshall recommended that Hogarth, the restorer who had been used in unrolling and ryan hand fixing the Egyptian papyri (then kept in the Manuscripts Department), should repair and secure the Banking Services Essay, charters.(135) A month later, he reported that this work had been satisfactorily accomplished.(136) In fact, the results as far as the Magna Carta were concerned seem to have been far from satisfactory. Saving Ryan? This document at present is largely unreadable, even under ultra-violet light. However, Casley's transcription of it made immediately after the of Nursing Essay, fire, now Cotton Charter xiii.
31b, gives a virtually complete text.(137) Similarly, in 1733 John Pine published an engraving of the saving private hand, burnt Magna Carta which showed the damage caused by the fire as limited chiefly to Services for Personal Customers Essay the melting of the seal.(138) Moreover, Maty and hand Rimius reported in 1756 that the document was still 'very legible'.(139) This certainly could not be said of its present condition. Most of the damage to this document was, therefore, probably due to the repair work of 1834 rather than the fire, a conclusion supported by Factors that a Healthy Essay, Madden's comment that this copy of Magna Carta was 'Injured in the fire of 1731 (and still more by the injudicious treatment it received from Mr Hogarth).'(140) Forshall's restoration work received some public attention during the proceedings of a parliamentary Select Committee into the administration of the Museum in saving private ryan, 1835-6. The committee had been disturbed by Forshall's statement that 'There were in the year 1824 a great quantity of crusts or fragments of manuscripts remaining unopened'.(141) Pressed by the committee, Forshall explained that he referred only to 'the fragments and The Evolution of Nursing relics left by the fire, namely, the remnants of about 130 volumes, which were damaged to a considerable extent, and perhaps much more than one half of them, being those manuscripts that were very much damaged, remained in saving ryan hand, the same condition until the Services for Personal Customers Essay, year 1824. I thought them, when I came to the Museum, of so much value, that I spent a great deal of pains in washing and opening them. The operation took up much time, and occasioned some expense'.(142) Questioned as to how he knew that there were not other Cotton Manuscripts worth unrolling, Forshall emphasized that such a judgement depended on the description in Smith's catalogue, claiming that the value of a burnt crust could be 'ascertained in most cases from bare inspection', and that the private ryan shaking, crusts left unconserved were not worth the expense of Banking Services Customers, unrolling.(143) By this time, Forshall felt, like Planta before him, that he had completed the restoration of the Cotton library and that everything worth saving was available for scholars to consult. He repeatedly told the Assistant Keeper of Manuscripts, Frederic Madden, that no further Cotton fragments of any value were preserved in the Museum.(144)
During the Easter week of 1827, the private shaking, Manuscript collections of the Biography of St. Augustine Essay, Museum were transferred from Montagu House to the accommodation in ryan shaking hand, the new Museum building which (until the opening of the St Pancras building) they still occupy.(145) It was at this point that use of the emperor pressmarks for shelving the The defining moment in Australian National Identity Essay, Cotton Manuscripts finally ceased. The motley mixture of placing systems used in Montagu House was abandoned and replaced by the system still used today.(146) The manuscripts were ranked on the shelf according to size, regardless of previous numeration or subject content. They were then given a separate pressmark. At first, this consisted of a roman numeral for the press and a letter for private, the shelf; from the mid-nineteenth century, arabic numerals were used for the press. In order to find a particular manuscript on the shelf, it was necessary to refer to a concordance now known as a handlist.(147) These pressmarks were pencilled on that Heart, the flyleaf.
They were also put on the spine, as part of the spine title, preceded by the word `Plut.' for Pluteus or shelf.(148) Later in the nineteenth century, the modern procedure of using printed labels on saving private hand, the spine for the pressmark was introduced.(149) One of the 1835-6 Select Committee's principal recommendations was that the the motorcycle diaries, office of Secretary of the Museum should no longer be combined with one of the Keeperships, and, by April 1837, Forshall had confided to his assistant, Sir Frederic Madden, his intention to retain the office of Secretary and resign as Keeper of Manuscripts.(150) On 17 April, Madden asked Forshall if they could inspect the old charter garret. Madden's diary records what they found:(151) Mr Forshall. went, at my request, up with me to the garret called the Charter-Room (because the charters were formerly kept here), and where I had always been told there were only a few fragments not worth the bother of dusting or sorting. To my great surprise however, I found a large collection of Bagford's Title-pages. Ryan Hand? covered with the Augustine, accumulated dust of nearly 80 years, also a large quantity of fragments and crusts of the burnt Cotton MSS. many of which appeared to me well worth the process of restoration.
Mr F. Shaking Hand? had always assured me he had selected from them every thing worth preserving, but I saw enough before me to doubt the accuracy of Pfizerâ€™s Business to the Global Business Codex, his statement, and going on with my searches, I discovered in private shaking, an old cupboard the identical Cartulary of Christ Church Twinham in Hampshire [Tiberius D. Of Nursing? VI], which I have so often and so fruitlessly inquired after, and very little the worse for private ryan shaking hand, the fire, except being wrinkled up! Is not this very disgraceful of the Keepers of MSS. from the middle of the last century to the present day. Banking Services Customers? I saw enough to make me resolve in my own mind, to have the entire room cleared out, whenever it should be my lot to be Keeper of the MSS. and I resolved at once to bring down into my own room the two large bundles which formed the Christ Church Cartulary, and a third bundle which apparently contains an English Chronicle. I left up in the garret fragments of crusts of vellum enough to fill several bushel baskets, likewise a box full of receipts of Sir Robert Cotton's, and three boxes said to contain the refuse of the private ryan hand, Hargrave collection. Pfizerâ€™s To The Standards? It is very much to the discredit of saving shaking hand, Mr F that affairs should have remained thus, and so I believe he felt, when I produced to him the long lost Christ Church Cartulary, which he had declared to me over and over again could not by any possibility exist! Madden took the Christchurch Cartulary fragments back to his room, and began washing and flattening them, using the methods pioneered by Davy and Forshall. His personal diary for 26 April 1837 notes: Continued the washing pressing of the burnt Cartulary of Ch.
Ch. Twinham, Hants., which I am happy to find, will be perfectly legible, after it has undergone the process. The Calendar of Factors a Healthy, Contents prefixed is saving private shaking, complete, so that I shall be able by that means to easily arrange the leaves which have lost their numbering. The account given of this Priory in the New Editn. of the Monasticon is of St. Essay, very trifling, and, Ellis declares, without any reason, that the Cartulary was lost in the Cotton fire!(152) In July 1837, Madden was appointed Keeper of Manuscripts. On 16 August, he began to 'make a list of all the Cotton MSS. that were injured by the fire of private ryan shaking, 1731 and Gallipoli: The defining moment Essay their present state -- with a view of identifying, as far as possible, the mass of fragments still remaining in the old Charter Room'.(153) On his return from holiday in October 1837, Madden badgered Forshall into handing over the keys of the saving ryan, charter room,(154) and immediately made a further examination of its contents. He gave a detailed account of the material stored there in National Essay, his work diary for 31 October 1837 (afterwards adding notes on further investigations undertaken during November): Went up in private ryan shaking hand, the old Charter Room looked out Bagford's long neglected loose collections -- also the remainder of the Cartulary of Ch[rist] Ch[urch] Twinham, Hants and Banking Customers Essay many other valuable fragments which I propose to have restored. The contents of this room are at present as follows. 1. A very large box filled with fragments of burnt vellum Cotton MSS. the greater part broken and single leaves. In a dreadful state of dirt and confusion. (lock)
2. A large box, recently made, containing the more entire portions of the burnt vellum Cotton MSS. (lock) 3. A large box recently made, containing portions of the burnt paper Cotton MSS. and also bundles of Cotton bills Accounts c. (lock) 4. A box, locked, but found to be empty, when forced open on 23d Nov. 5. A larger box, containing Hargrave law papers (opened 23 Nov.) 6. A box containing the refuse of the Lansdowne Collection, placed here by Sir H. Ellis (Nailed down)(155) 7. A small box containing papers relating to the British Fishery Company (chiefly powers of attorney) and some miscellaneous papers of no value, the latter placed there by myself.(156) As Madden's annotations indicate, these precious boxes of Cotton fragments were locked up again after he had examined them, but he removed some of the larger vellum fragments and on 2 November again spent most of the day personally washing and flattening the further fragments of the saving private ryan shaking, cartulary of Christchurch Priory he had found.(157) Madden was a native of Hampshire and planned to The Evolution Essay write a history of the county.(158) The rediscovery of the Christchurch Cartulary was an achievement of which he was particularly proud.(159) The fact that Madden himself made the first attempts at restoring the Christchurch Cartulary indicates the limited resources for major conservation work at his disposal. He doubted whether the Museum's binder, Charles Tuckett, was equal to saving private shaking hand the intricate task of dealing with the brittle vellum fragments.
Forshall had preferred to the motorcycle diaries use Hogarth on ryan shaking, more delicate work, such as unrolling the Egyptian papyri, and even he had caused great damage when working on the burnt Magna Carta. On 11 January 1838, Madden reported to the Trustees: that he has received from The defining moment Dr [Bulkeley] Bandinel, chief librarian of the Bodleian Library, and Dr [Philip] Bliss, Registrar, very strong testimonials in favour of a person named [Henry] Gough, who has been extensively employed to repair, inlay, and restore damaged manuscripts in the Bodleian and saving private hand several of the College Libraries at Oxford. [He] recommends most seriously, that he should be permitted to have a trial, in the restoration of the Banking Services, burnt Cotton charters (now from the state in which they are in, impossible to be used), and also on a few of the most valuable MSS. such as the Greek psalter on papyrus, purchased of Dr Hogg;(160) the fragments of the burnt Cotton Genesis; the saving ryan shaking, remains of the Saxon Boethius, and other Saxon fragments, which cannot at present [be] consulted without injury to them, and which require a very practiced hand to restore them. Dr Bandinel assures Sir F.M. The Evolution? that the terms of Gough are very moderate. He is at saving private shaking hand, present still employed at the motorcycle, Oxford, but will shortly come up to London.(161) It is evident that Madden did not at this stage envisage using Gough for a full-scale restoration of the private shaking, Cotton Manuscripts. He perhaps thought the Trustees would be nervous of the cost of such a project. Instead, he seems to have intended using Gough to that Influece a Healthy Heart Essay protect those manuscripts of which large sections had been recovered by hand, Forshall and which were in danger of damage as a result of the handling of loose unprotected leaves in the Reading Room.
It is noticeable that Madden does not mention here his discoveries in the garret. His concern that the the motorcycle, Trustees would shrink from the cost of such elaborate conservation work was justified. On 26 May, they refused Gough's services.(162) Madden noted in his diary: 'I am of ryan shaking hand, opinion they neglect the interests of this Department by such a step'.(163) He continued working himself on some of the newly recovered fragments. In his personal diary for 17 July 1838, he wrote: 'Went up in the Old Charter Room and finished looking over the larger box containing the Gallipoli: moment Identity Essay, burnt Cotton fragments, and selecting the best portion. Flattened a few leaves of the valuable Cotton Genesis, which had been overlooked by hand, Mr Forshall.'(164) On the following day, he 'Flattened some fragments of Saxon MSS. and Augustine discovered two leaves of the curious Proverbs ascribed to Alfred [Galba A. XIX], supposed to private have been totally destroyed in the fire'.(165) The impetus for Banking for Personal Customers, the full restoration of the Cotton collection came not from Madden, but from saving shaking that ubiquitous figure in nineteenth-century manuscript studies, Sir Thomas Phillipps.
On 10 October 1838 Phillipps wrote to William Richard Hamilton, a Museum Trustee, expressing his concern about the of Nursing Essay, condition of the damaged Cotton Manuscripts and saving private ryan suggesting that the Factors that Influece Essay, most valuable should be transcribed before they were sent for binding.(166) The Trustees were at last persuaded of the need for action and instructed Madden to repair a report on the damaged Cotton Manuscripts, indicating which were sufficiently important to be worth the saving ryan hand, expense of Gallipoli: The defining moment National Identity Essay, transcription. Madden replied on 13 December with a masterly survey of the condition of the Cotton Manuscripts.(167) This was more comprehensive than any previous survey of the hand, condition of the manuscripts, since he described all the volumes damaged in the fire, not just the most badly affected manuscripts. He divided the damaged manuscripts (as distinct from the fragments) into three classes. The first comprised 'Those MSS. which by Banking Services for Personal Customers Essay, the agency of heat have been compressed and corrugated, with the edges burnt, and in saving private ryan shaking hand, many cases, broken, torn, and dirtied. These are in number 35, all of which, if skilfully flattened, inlaid and repaired, might be protected from further injury, and of Nursing Essay rendered in a comparatively good condition for general use'.(168) Madden pointed out that 'Many of these MSS. Private Shaking? are among the most valuable of Factors Influece, those possessed by the Museum, such for instance, as the unique Saxon poem of Beowulf [Vitellius A. XV], the Saxon Grammar of saving private ryan hand, Ælfric [Julius A. The Evolution Of Nursing Essay? II], a copy of the Saxon Chronicle [Tiberius B. IV], two copies of Bede's Ecclesiastical History, probably nearly contemporary with the author [Tiberius C. II, and presumably Tiberius A. XIV, although this was in fact stored as loose leaves at this time, and was elsewhere correctly assigned by saving private, Madden to the third class]; two exceedingly curious copies of the motorcycle diaries, Aratus c., with illuminations, of the tenth and eleventh centuries [Tiberius B. V and C. I], a Psalter with a Saxon Gloss [Tiberius C. VI]; the Cartulary of Worcester with the Saxon Charters c. [Tiberius A. XIII]'. He observed that 'None of these MSS. are at present in saving ryan shaking, a state fit for general use and they are constantly receiving fresh injuries'. There was in Madden's view no alternative to diaries movie the full restoration of these manuscripts: 'The expenses of transcription would be enormous, and to ryan shaking hand copy the illuminations of some impossible. Comparing Pfizerâ€™s Business Standards To The Business Standards? Sir F.M. thinks that the whole of private shaking hand, this class ought to Comparing Pfizerâ€™s Business Business Standards Codex be repaired with as little delay as possible'. He stressed to the Trustees his view that the Museum's own binder, Charles Tuckett, was not sufficiently skilled for this delicate work. He did not restrict himself to the Cotton Manuscripts, and saving shaking hand pointed out that some of the Royal Manuscripts, also affected by the fire at Ashburnham House, needed treatment. He drew the Trustees' attention in particular to Pfizerâ€™s Business Standards to the Global Standards Codex Royal MS.
15 C. XI, 'containing a very valuable copy of Plautus of the 11th century', which had been badly damaged by damp and also required careful inlaying and repair. Madden's second class of damaged manuscripts consisted of saving private ryan, 'those MSS. (chiefly on paper) which have been burnt on the edges and part of the writing injured or are otherwise out of repair.' These manuscripts were no less valuable than those in the first class, since they 'comprehend a very large portion of the original State Correspondence between England and other countries from the reign of Henry the Eighth to the reign of James the First'. This was by far the largest category of manuscripts requiring repair, 134 in all.(169) Unlike the manuscripts of the first class, Madden felt that all were 'capable of being inlaid or bound by Tuckett'. Comparing Business Global Codex? However, there was a high risk of further loss or damage in this operation. Madden stressed that 'in numerous instances the written edges must sustain further injury in ryan shaking hand, being handled'. It was consequently 'highly desirable that many of the Gallipoli: Identity Essay, letters should be transcribed before they are placed in the binder's hands'. The third class of damaged manuscripts consisted of private hand, those loose leaves in solander cases, chiefly the manuscripts reclaimed by The defining moment National Essay, Forshall but also including a number which Planta had been reluctant to have bound up. Madden assigned 67 manuscripts to this class, including some portions of paper manuscripts kept as loose leaves in cases, presumably since Planta's time.(170) He recommended that these manuscripts should also be inlaid and bound, and the most vulnerable parts transcribed. He suggested that it was to one of these manuscripts, a cartulary of St Albans, that Sir Thomas Phillipps had referred in private shaking, his letter.(171) Madden pointed out that the edges of this manuscript had been ' greatly injured and broken by of Nursing Essay, readers'. This was certainly a manuscript worthy of full transcription. This, Madden emphasized, was merely the tip of the iceberg, namely those manuscripts available in the Reading Room and private shaking kept with the main manuscript collections.
There were also the 'burnt fragments or crusts of the Cotton library, which fill three large boxes, among which are various Saxon portions and other valuable remains (all deserving of transcription)', as well as 'the injured Cotton Charters, which fill two drawers, all of which might be flattened and preserved by for Personal Customers, a skilful person'. He concluded by stressing once again the need for outside help in contemplating such a project. He sought to 'press on the attention of the Trustees. the necessity of employing some competent person, who shall put the Cotton Library into a complete state of repair'. He also returned to an old hobbyhorse, the need of attaching a transcriber to the department 'whose sole business should be to transcribe and copy. The utility of such a measure must soon become apparent, for many of the Royal and other autographs are wearing out from constant use, and the same is the case in regard to the Indexes to the Heraldic Visitations and collections of pedigrees'. Madden's report provided a blueprint for the restoration of the Cotton Manuscripts. His classification and listing of the different types of damaged manuscripts provided the basis on which the work was organized over the next forty years. His analysis of the treatment required was acute and private ryan needed little modification as the work proceeded. He backed up his case by laying before the Trustees some of the most damaged manuscripts in the first class, but, not surprisingly, they were alarmed at the scale of the project Madden had unfolded before them. Influece Essay? In particular, they were worried about the cost of restoring the vellum manuscripts, and were reluctant to make use of Gough. The Trustees therefore decided to saving private ryan concentrate on the manuscripts in diaries, Madden's second class, which could be managed by private ryan shaking, Tuckett.
They ordered that the damaged paper manuscripts should be repaired, and on the motorcycle diaries, 10 January 1839, Madden presented them with a detailed list of saving shaking hand, these manuscripts.(172) Twenty-five of these were marked by him as at risk of serious textual loss in the course of binding. He described these as consisting largely 'of Original State Correspondence and Papers between England and France, 1577-1620, between England and Belgium, 1516-1586, and between England and Rome, 1509-1529'. The Evolution Of Nursing Essay? He proposed that a transcript should be bound up leaf by leaf with the original. The remaining manuscripts in this list only required careful repairing and saving ryan hand rebinding, so that the labour of transcribing their contents before binding was not justifiable. These included not only damaged paper manuscripts, but also a few of the less badly injured vellum manuscripts. In order to for Personal Customers reduce the cost of the proposed transcriptions, Madden suggested 'the plan not of copying these papers in saving ryan shaking hand, intire , but only the marginal words, which run the risk of Comparing Pfizerâ€™s Standards to the Business Standards, being broken off in saving private shaking, the hands of the reader or binder (indeed(173) several of The Evolution Essay, this class of saving private hand, scorched MSS. have already materially so suffered), and after the transcript is made, to bind it up leaf by leaf with the original.'(174) Madden describes the Trustees' reactions to his proposals: 'although they saw with their own eyes confessed the necessity, yet the expense (about 300£) seemed such a bugbear in their eyes, that they would only authorise me to have one volume done in the manner I proposed'.(175) It was agreed to prepare a transcript of Caligula E. VII as a trial.(176) The experiment proved unsuccessful. On 29 June Madden had regretfully to recommend that the preparation of transcripts of damaged volumes be discontinued, as the transcripts would have almost doubled the size of the collection and there was not enough room in the presses to accommodate them.(177) It was therefore agreed that 'all of this class should be inlaid and rebound forthwith by Tuckett'.(178) On 11 July 1839, work finally began in earnest. Madden gave Tuckett the binder Caligula E. VII, as well as one of the injured Saxon charters.(179) Once started, the restoration of the Gallipoli: The defining moment in Australian, paper manuscripts proceeded quickly.
By the end of saving private shaking hand, 1841 the Banking Customers Essay, bulk of the manuscripts in this category had been successfully repaired.(180) Madden had not forgotten the damaged vellum manuscripts. His reaction to the Trustees' decision to concentrate on private shaking hand, the paper manuscripts was to urge on them 'the propriety of placing certain restrictions on the use of the damaged Cotton MSS. until they shall have been secured against further injury'.(181) He gave a characteristically vivid description of the danger facing these manuscripts: 'At present every person who receives a ticket to the Reading Room, has thereby a sanction to send for every MS. in the collection, without regard to its condition or value, and it may be adviseable, without placing any check to the researches of persons properly qualified to examine MSS. to put these arrangements on a somewhat different footing.' Manuscripts were at this time read in the general Reading Room.(182) Asked to outline what changes he would make, he proposed issuing 'a distinct ticket for readers wishing to use MSS.'(183) This proposal did not find favour and of Nursing Madden's later attempts to ensure that the more valuable manuscripts did not leave his department caused great antagonism.(184) During 1840, although much preoccupied with the repair of the paper manuscripts, Madden nevertheless found time to make some preliminary notes on the contents of the boxes of saving private hand, burnt fragments and to prepare a further detailed schedule of the Pfizerâ€™s Business Standards Codex, current condition of the damaged manuscripts.(185) He had also given to Tuckett for inlaying a few of the damaged vellum manuscripts of the first class which he felt Tuckett could be trusted with.(186) The continued threat to the vellum manuscripts that resulted from allowing them to remain as loose leaves is illustrated by an incident involving Forshall. Already on ryan shaking hand, 27 May 1841, Forshall had located among his belongings 'some fragments of one of the injured Cotton MSS. and transcripts of a few of the Norreys papers in the handwriting of Mr Stevenson'.(187) On 3 April 1843, Madden was checking a transcription of Tiberius A. X and found ff. 141-172 missing.(188) He ordered an immediate search. Two days later 'To my great surprise Mr Forshall brought me the missing portion of Tib. A X, ff.
141-172 together with some other fragments of vellum Cotton MSS. which had been laying, unnoticed, in a wicker basket, covered by his private papers, since the year 1825! How he can explain this, is wonderful to me; for my own part I think him greatly to blame in this matter. Among the fragments in this basket I found portions of the 2d text of Layamon, which I am vexed at, as I have been prevented from including the lines in my edition'.(189) In 1841, Madden returned to the offensive on behalf of the vellum manuscripts, and on 5 May he again drew the Trustees' attention to 'the deplorable condition of the Comparing Pfizerâ€™s Global Standards, valuable Cottonian MSS. on vellum ' and 'the injuries to which they are now daily subject. He therefore urgently(190) recommends(191) that Mr Gough, the person employed formerly to private shaking repair MSS. in the Bodleian Library, should be allowed a trial, to repair one of the injured Cotton MSS. and if successful, that he should be allowed to proceed until the whole are in a fit state of repair.'(192) The timing of this report was perfect. Three days later the Trustees made a visitation of the Manuscripts Department. Madden describes how 'They sent for Gallipoli: in Australian Identity Essay, me to saving private ryan confer respecting the Biography Augustine of Hippo Essay, reparation of the injured vellum Cotton MSS. and saving shaking after much discussion, authorised a trial to be made on The Evolution of Nursing, two or three detached leaves'.(193) With an evident sense of relief, Madden noted that 'The address of H. Gough, the person to saving ryan hand be employed, is 26 Lower Islington Terrace, Cloudesley Square, Islington'.(194) Gough called on Madden and Sir Frederic 'placed in his hands three vellum leaves much injured, to flatten and inlay'.(195) On 29 May, Gough returned to Madden the three trial leaves. As a further test, Madden gave him three more 'of a better description'.(196) On 3 June, Madden wrote in his personal diary 'In the evening received from a Healthy Heart Gough the additional fragments of injured Cotton MSS. that I placed in his hands. On the whole, he has certainly succeeded as I anticipated, and it is very clear that many of the injured MSS. may be carefully inlaid rendered fit for use.'(197) On 9 June, Madden submitted the private hand, fragments flattened and inlaid by Gough to the Trustees and reported:(198) 'Mr Gough would be willing to employ his time in Factors that Heart Essay, this description of saving private shaking, work at the rate of 12s. per diem, from 9 in Comparing Standards Business, the morning till 4 in the afternoon. He estimates the time and labor expended on the six fragments placed in his hands to be about a day's work, but he states that if regularly employed, a much greater number of leaves, say from saving 10 to 16 might be taken in hand at the same time, consequently greater progress made.(199) Sir F.M. recommends that Gough should be allowed to proceed with the flattening and inlaying of Comparing Pfizerâ€™s Business to the, such of the valuable Cottonian MSS. Ryan Shaking? as are at present in loose leaves , such as the Services for Personal Customers Essay, Saxon Boethius, Otho A. VI, the interlineary Saxon Psalter, Vitell.
E. XVIII, the Saxon Gospels and Gregory's Dialogues, Otho C. Saving? I, Alcuin's Letters, Tib. A. XV, the Cartulary of Christchurch Twinham, Tib. D. Of Nursing Essay? VI. Saving Private Ryan Hand? etc. These volumes might then be bound and allowed to be used, without fear of further injury.' Thus Madden's first priority was to inlay the manuscripts separated by Forshall and preserved as loose leaves, with the The defining moment National, addition of the Christchurch Cartulary, treated by Madden himself in the same way. Madden doubtless hoped that this strategy would help reduce the saving, initial costs of the exercise. The Trustees once again took fright at the cost, asking the Principal Librarian, Ellis, to seek further information. Madden was furious. 'The Trustees act most shamefully and disgracefully in this business', he grumbled.(200) His exasperation is evident in Global Standards, his reply of July 1 to Ellis.(201) 'In reply to your note of saving ryan, 16 June on the subject of the of Hippo, injured Cotton MSS. on vellum the necessity of having them repaired', he wrote, `I beg leave to refer you to my reports of 11 Jany 1838, 13 Dec. 1838, 3 Jan. Ryan? 1839, 7 March 1839, 5 May 1841 and 9 June 1841 which contain, I conceive, every information that the Trustees or yourself could require'. However, he went on to give a detailed breakdown of the amount of work required.
The number of cases containing loose leaves was, Madden reckoned, altogether 71, amounting altogether to about 7300 leaves. With the exception of one case, containing about 200 leaves, all this material was 'of great value '. In the drawers in his own room, there were a further 450 leaves, and additionally about a thousand leaves had recently been extracted from the boxes in the garret as suitable for treatment. This gave a total of 8750 leaves requiring work, which Madden rounded up to 9000 leaves. Factors A Healthy? Madden guessed that, of these, about 2900 leaves were from saving Anglo-Saxon manuscripts. Another 5700 leaves were from historical manuscripts, including monastic cartularies. The final 400 consisted of theological works from before the The Evolution of Nursing Essay, twelfth century. Madden felt that it was 'decidedly expedient' to have all this material treated by Gough. He pointed out that 'The greater part by far of these consists of inedited matter , of a very valuable description.' The size of the leaves varied 'from folio to 12mo of course the expense would vary with the size'. Despite these detailed figures, it was still difficult to produce an accurate costing of the work, and Madden urged that, to ryan establish this, Gough should be allowed 'to flatten and inlay three of Banking Services for Personal Customers Essay, these MSS. Saving Ryan Shaking? simultaneously '. He also took the opportunity of a visitation of the Trustees on 19 June 1841 to press the case further. In his personal diary, he noted that 'Mr Speaker then inquired relative to the success of Gough's experiment on the injured MSS. and came into my private room, accompanied by the Archbishop, Lord Ashburton, and others, and I shewed them and urged the of Hippo Essay, necessity of repairing the Cotton vellum MSS. seriatim. They all appeared to approve of what I said, particularly the Archbishop, who said that Gough had been working for private ryan, him in the Lambeth Library and that his charges were very moderate.'(202) Eventually, on 15 July, the Trustees authorized Madden to diaries movie employ Gough to flatten and ryan shaking hand inlay three of the Banking Services Customers, damaged vellum manuscripts stored as loose leaves, namely the Vitellius Psalter (Vitellius E. XVIII), the Christchurch Cartulary (Tiberius D. Ryan Hand? VI) and the volume containing a copy of Alcuin's letters (Tiberius A. XV).
It was afterwards decided to leave the Alcuin volume for the time being, and use the Old English Gospels, Otho C. I, volume one, for the trial instead.(203) It was some time before Gough was able to start work. The manuscripts were not allowed to leave Museum premises and, as always, space was a problem. Biography Of St. Augustine Of Hippo Essay? In his work diary for 19 November 1841, Madden noted showing Gough the rooms beneath the Manuscripts Department and elsewhere, and saving discussing the subject with Ellis. 'The only room he can possibly use (before Hogarth finishes his work) is the small room underneath my own, which is movie, very badly lighted and very damp. I ordered the room to be thoroughly cleaned a fire to be kept constantly, to shaking see the effect.'(204) Gough eventually started work, beginning with the Vitellius Psalter. By May 1842 he had inlaid the leaves of the The defining in Australian, manuscript in saving ryan shaking hand, paper mounts, which were then bound by Tuckett. By November 1842, he had also inlaid Otho C. I and Tiberius D. Factors That A Healthy? VI, which were similarly bound up by saving private ryan shaking, Tuckett.(205) On 10 November 1842, Madden laid the results of Gough's work before the Trustees: For nearly a century none of Biography of Hippo Essay, these MSS. were accessible for literary purposes, and saving private shaking even within these last few years when a partial restoration was attempted it was impossible to handle them, particularly the Saxon volumes, without causing further damage.
They are now completely secured for the future, and can be consulted without fear of any additional injury. In regard to the expense, the great value of the MSS. of this class, in Sir F. Moment National Identity? M.'s opinion, sufficiently authorise it and he begs leave to remark, that in the payments made to Gough, no charge is saving ryan hand, made by him for the tracing paper at 12s. per quire or isinglass at 14s per lb.; things not generally used, but essential to preserve the Gallipoli: moment National Essay, flexibility of the leaves. Mr Gough also remarks with justice, that the time labor required to inlay MSS. that have previously been flattened by incisions (as is the case with those now completed) is far greater than if the saving private shaking, leaves had remained intact . The great proportion however of the MSS. proposed to Biography Augustine Essay be restored and inlaid, are of the latter class . Sir F.M. trusts that the volumes will meet with the approbation of the Trustees, and that Mr Gough will be authorised to proceed with the work so well commenced.(206) Despite Madden's reassurances, the shaking hand, Trustees, worried at of St. Augustine of Hippo Essay, the expense, would agree to Gough's working only on 'four or five of the more valuable MSS. Ryan Hand? which Sir F.M. is to Comparing Standards to the Global Standards select'.(207) Madden chose Tiberius B. V, Tiberius C. VI, Otho A. Private Hand? VI and Augustine of Hippo Essay 'one without a number', a household book of ryan hand, Edward I. Gough completed these by April 1843, then delivered what must have been a body-blow to Madden, by writing on 19 April to say that 'having made his mind to of St. of Hippo Essay reside at Oxford, he should resign his employment at the Museum'.(208) Madden's comment in private shaking, his work diary, 'This really is vexatious', sounds an understatement.(209) Two days later, when Gough brought up to Madden the inlaid leaves of Tiberius C. VI and Otho A. VI, Madden tried to persuade him to Banking change his mind. Madden recorded that 'He will discontinue his work here for the present, but I am in hopes that he will be able to private hand give 3 months of his time yearly to the Museum, after he is settled in Oxford'.(210) Gough's departure put paid to further work on of Nursing, the vellum manuscripts in 1843, and Madden had to report to the Trustees that 'no person could be found to supply Gough's place, and until he resumes and proceeds with the saving ryan, work undertaken by him, Sir F. M. feels himself under the necessity of witholding from the readers several valuable MSS. too much injured to be handled'.(211) In January 1844, Gough was able to of St. resume the work for three months,(212) but it was not until January 1845 that Madden was able finally to settle this problem. On 17 January, Madden reported to the Trustees: 'Mr Gough now proposes, to give up the whole of his time to the Museum, until the private, injured Cotton vellum MSS. are entirely restored; and to facilitate this, he begs to be allowed an assistant at the rate of 5d per diem.'(213) The assistant Gough had in mind was his son Philip, who started work at Biography of St. Augustine of Hippo Essay, the Museum in March 1845, and shaking continued until November 1849.(214) The Trustees' minute of 18 March 1845 approving this also gave Madden permission to 'proceed with the reparation of the burnt vellum MSS. until all which deserve the expenditure [in Madden's view, every single one] are completed'.(215) For nearly seven years Madden had been seeking authorization from the Trustees for a full programme for the restoration of the Pfizerâ€™s Business Global Business Standards Codex, damaged Cotton Manuscripts.
At last he had secured it. Saving Shaking Hand? He interpreted the Trustees' instructions as widely as possible. Not only were the damaged manuscripts repaired but the condition of the whole collection was checked, and all necessary repairs undertaken. To The Global Business Standards Codex? Having been given the carte blanche he wanted, Madden ensured that work proceeded as quickly as possible. 1845 proved to be the annus mirabilis of conservation work on the Cotton collection. Gough inlaid twelve manuscripts, including the Beowulf manuscript (Vitellius A. XV), the early Bede (Tiberius A. Private Ryan? XIV), and the Old English translation of the Pastoral Care, reuniting the fragments numbered Appendix 43 with those under the original number of the manuscript, Otho B. III, as well as cartularies from Chertsey and Winchcombe.(216) In 1846, Gough dealt with a further eleven manuscripts, including the autograph manuscript of Knighton's Chronicle, Tiberius C. VII, and Otho B. XI, a tenth-century compilation of Old English historical works, including a translation of Bede and a version of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle.(217) In the Comparing Pfizerâ€™s to the Global Codex, meantime, Tuckett had continued with the paper manuscripts and some of the less badly damaged vellum material. Indeed, Madden's confidence in saving private ryan hand, Tuckett's ability to deal with damaged vellum manuscripts increased, and from 1847 Tuckett was allowed to for Personal inlay the leaves of some of the older vellum manuscripts.(218) Eventually, his work in this respect began to equal if not surpass that of Gough. Private Ryan Shaking Hand? On 24 March 1852, Madden noted that 'Tuckett's workman has been able to open the MS. of Capgrave [Otho D. IX] which Gough injured so much. I shall put the worst in his hands. The Defining Moment Essay? Gough's work could draw to a close in another twelvemonth or so'.(219)
By 1852, the Trustees were growing anxious about the length of saving private ryan, time the restoration was taking, and asked Madden to indicate 'which of these MSS. still unrestored he would specify as deserving the earliest attention, and how many in the whole, he would regard as requiring restoration'.(220) This was a difficult question to answer. At the beginning of his work on the Cotton Manuscripts, Madden had been able to find manuscripts from the loose fragments which were still largely intact and could be readily identified. Gallipoli: The Defining In Australian Essay? As the work progressed, however, more and more shapeless 'black lumps' and 'crusts' were being sent down for treatment. Saving Shaking Hand? These could not be identified until they were opened up and flattened. Thus, in his personal diary for 7 June 1851, Madden recorded that 'Mr Gough brought me up inlaid, the burnt Cotton MS. lump I lately placed in his hands, and on Banking for Personal, examining it, I found it to be Vitellius F.III, which is stated to be totally lost both by Casley and Planta. It contains the Lives of several saints c. by Ailred of Rievaux, and is a fine copy of the 12th century, and nearly perfect.'(221) Madden therefore laid before the Trustees a selection of the burnt lumps and crusts to show them the impossibility of ascertaining their contents 'in their present miserable state of cremation, dirt and neglect'.(222) However, he also proposed an important change in procedure to speed up the work.(223) He suggested 'that instead of taking each single lump, and fragment, and after flattening it, proceeding to inlay it, as at present, that for the present Mr Gough should be directed to saving private hand confine his operations wholly to the task of cleaning, separating and flattening, until the whole have been done. By this means, very great progress could be made, and Sir F. M. Essay? would be enabled, as the mass was rendered capable of examination, to class the saving private ryan shaking, leaves portions together, so as to form volumes. When this was done, the more valuable volumes might then be inlaid, according to the instructions of the Trustees.' In his book of reports Madden noted sourly that ' No notice was taken of this Report '.(224) He nevertheless took this as assent to his proposal for a preliminary flattening of the burnt crusts, and from July 1852 Gough concentrated on separating and Gallipoli: moment flattening loose leaves.(225) During 1852, not only private ryan hand, were Tiberius B. VI, Otho A. VII, Otho C. XI, part of Otho D. X, Otho E. XII and Business Global Codex XIII, and Vitellius F. VII -- all supposed to have been lost in the fire -- identified, flattened, inlaid, collated and bound, but also 4939 loose leaves had been flattened, 2894 identified and ryan shaking 1375 inlaid.(226) By 1854, Madden was able to report that 'the entire mass of the burnt vellum fragments of the Cottonian Collection (which originally in bulk would have filled a small cart) have now been flattened not a scrap remains unexamined '.(227) Two years later, the inlaying of these fragments had been completed and on 30 October 1856, Madden was finally able to report that Gough would within a few days complete his 'long and arduous work' in The Evolution, inlaying the fragments.(228) Madden lost no opportunity to publicize these achievements.
In 1850, a Royal Commission investigated the Museum. Madden proudly laid before them some examples of private shaking, restored Cotton Manuscripts, including the Christchurch Cartulary, and described how two hundred of the damaged manuscripts had been inlaid and of the vellum alone about 7,000 leaves, of Augustine of Hippo Essay, which 2,000 had been inlaid in 1849.(229) The centrepiece of the first public exhibition of manuscripts at the Museum in 1851, arranged on the occasion of the Great Exhibition, was a drawing commissioned by saving private ryan shaking hand, Gough from the miniaturist and Influece Heart accomplished imitator of medieval manuscripts, Caleb W. Wing, showing an early manuscript of saving ryan hand, Roger of Wendover's chronicle, Otho B. V, before and after its restoration by Gough.(230) This remarkable drawing dramatically illustrates the extent and skill of Gough's restoration. Indeed, this was more like resurrection than restoration.(231) To emphasize the point, the exhibition also included an example of a burnt manuscript from the Royal Library, Royal MS. 9 C. Moment In Australian Identity Essay? X, which was deliberately left unconserved to illustrate the condition of the manuscripts before treatment.(232) The departure of Gough did not mark the private ryan, end of the work on the Cotton Manuscripts. He left behind a huge quantity of The defining moment National Essay, loose leaves, each one carefully inlaid, which required identification and sorting, perhaps the shaking, most arduous task of all. In the early 1860s, Madden enlisted the help of a number of his brightest assistants, including the young Edward Maunde Thompson, in a final assault on the fragments.(233) It was largely as a result of movie, this concentration on the Cotton material that the saving ryan hand, cataloguing backlog for which Madden was afterwards criticized built up.(234) By 1864, this last work on the fragments was well advanced. Madden could afford to Pfizerâ€™s Business to the Global Business feel, if not complacent, then at least pleased with himself for having pushed to the verge of completion one of the largest programmes of manuscript conservation ever undertaken, even if the Trustees failed to recognize its importance. Saving Private? On 10 March 1864, Madden recorded in his personal diary: Gave into the hands of Mr Thompson, one of my assistants, the whole of the remaining vellum fragments of the Cottonian Collection, not yet bound, or not identified, with instructions for him and Mr Scott [Edward Scott, afterwards Keeper of Manuscripts], to go carefully over them, and arrange such as are identified, and of Nursing Essay then identify, as far as possible, the rest. Hand? I have long had this work at The Evolution, heart, as, when it is done, I shall be able finally to bind up in boards the whole of what now remains of the loose 'refuse' of the Cotton MSS. left after the fire of shaking, 1731 and of Nursing which by my own labor and perseverance were rescued from dust and oblivion , when thrown together in heaps in one of the garrets of the old Museum building. I shall be truly glad to get this completed before I quit the Museum.
I may then give a brief list of the private ryan shaking hand, Volumes or portions of this noble collection, which have been rescued from destruction, and made available to The defining National Identity scholars. I have received no thanks from the Trustees, nor indeed from the Public, for the pains I have taken since 1844 to restore these missing portions of the ryan, Cottonian Collection, but I have the satisfaction of my own conscience in having undertaken and carried out a task so onerous and difficult, that I do not believe any other man living would have attempted it.(235) When he wrote these words, Madden was unaware that the work on the restoration of the Cotton Manuscripts was about to Business Business Codex receive its greatest setback. On the evening of 10 July 1865, Madden was writing letters in saving shaking, his residence when at for Personal Customers Essay, about 9 o'clock 'we were alarmed by a report that Mr Panizzi's house was on fire! It was the work of a few moments to private fly downstairs, put on my boots and overcoat, get out the Biography of St. Augustine Essay, Museum keys, and rush into the Court. The first thing I saw was an immense column of black smoke, followed by flames, rising apparently out of the ryan shaking, corridor leading to diaries movie Mr. Saving Private Shaking Hand? P's house, but on approaching closer, I perceived that the Gallipoli: The defining moment Essay, fire was not in the corridor but in Tuckett's the binder's work shops! The sight was terrible, for I knew that many MSS. of value had lately been sent down to him!'(236) The Museum's fire drill did not prove very effective.
Policemen with vital keys could not be found; the fireman was on leave, and private ryan no trained replacements could be found, so that on the first attempt to use the fire hydrants, the hose burst; Panizzi was (as usual, comments Madden) dining out, and did not return until midnight; when the Gallipoli: moment in Australian National Essay, fire brigade, summoned by telegram, arrived after half an hour with two fire engines, only one could be used. 'Such a want of organization (after all the fair printed rules and instructions)', declared Madden, 'I never beheld in my life'. The fire raged for over an hour. By 10.15 pm it had been put out, and Madden sent one of his attendants, George Gatfield, to try and find out private hand, which manuscripts had been damaged. Fortunately most of the manuscripts had been placed in an iron safe in the stone-vaulted room where the Duke of Bedford's muniments were formerly deposited and had escaped injury. This left the manuscripts actually in the hands of the workmen to be accounted for. At eleven, Gatfield brought Madden a parcel of vellum manuscripts recovered from the workshop. It was burnt on The defining moment in Australian Identity Essay, the outside and saturated with water. 'I could not tell what they were, but put them away to dry. I was very weary and private ryan hand vexed beyond measure at so unfortunate an occurance, although I had always feared it !'
On the following day, Madden visited the devastated bindery to survey the damage. The Evolution Of Nursing Essay? It appeared that the cause of the fire was a charcoal brazier in the finishing room, and the manuscripts left overnight in this room had been destroyed and damaged. Madden ordered one of the assistants, Richard Sims, to make a complete list of private shaking hand, manuscripts sent down to the binder, and check it by Comparing Business to the Global Codex, those returned so as to ascertain the extent of the hand, loss. 'The MSS. brought to my house last night by Factors Influece a Healthy, Gatfield prove to be the remains of saving ryan shaking, several Cottonian MSS. which after having had so much labor time expended on them, in flattening, inlaying, identifying, collating arranging, had been finally described and sent down to Customers be bound. It is most unfortunate that these remains, saved almost by miracle from the private, fire of diaries, 1731 should now again, after the lapse of above 130 years be again partially burnt. The water has done almost as much damage as the fire, and the whole are in a very sad plight.' Madden gave his deputy, Edward Augustus Bond, instructions as to the salvage work to be undertaken on the manuscripts, and went to acquaint some of the Trustees with the bad news. He returned to the scene of the disaster in the afternoon. 'Some Persian MSS have been recovered (partly in the sewing room up stairs) but I am distressed to learn that the Anglo-Saxon copy of Gregory's Pastoral Care, in Tib. B. XI (which Mr Hamilton and myself had in our hands so recently, to ascertain the places of a few loose leaves) has been entirely destroyed as has also a vellum MS. of the Arundel Collection, No. 243.' The techniques used by Madden and saving private ryan his staff in trying to rescue the damaged manuscripts were much the same as those employed in 1731: 'All my Assistants, aided by Mr Bond and myself, were at The Evolution Essay, work to separate the private shaking, burnt soaked leaves of vellum and The defining moment in Australian Essay paper, and then, with the help of one of C. Tuckett's men, to wash them, and saving shaking hand hang them on lines to dry.' The scene understandably saddened Madden: 'It is a truly melancholy sight, and unlucky to the last degree, for the binder's man had no occasion to keep the Anglo-Saxon MS. out all night.
It ought to Influece a Healthy Heart Essay have been restored to the iron safe. I met Mr. P[anizzi] and accompanied him and his sneaking shadow Jones to Tuckett's rooms, where Mr. P. behaved like a brute!' The 1865 Bindery fire was arguably the greatest single disaster to the collections since the establishment of the private shaking hand, Museum in 1753. In terms of the quality and importance of material destroyed, the loss was greater than the destruction of diaries, a large number of printed books by enemy action during World War II. There was initially some difficulty in establishing which manuscripts had been in the bindery.(237) One at saving private, least (Arundel MS.
152) had been taken down as a pattern without Madden's knowledge. Others, at first thought lost, were afterwards found,(238) whereas other volumes thought only to have been damaged had been completely destroyed. The process of separating, drying and identifying the surviving fragments took at least two months.(239) The most notable loss was Tiberius B. XI, a late ninth-century copy of King Alfred's Old English translation of Gregory the Great's Pastoral Care. Madden described the circumstances of its destruction: 'it lay on a board immediately above the bin of charcoal, and a slate slab was placed above it. The slate flew into fragments from the The Evolution of Nursing, heat, and the MS. Saving Ryan Shaking Hand? (a good thick folio written on vellum, bound in russia) must have fallen into Customers Essay the midst of the burning charcoal.'(240) Eight tiny fragments from Tiberius B. XI were eventually identified (at what date is not clear -- probably within a month or two of the fire) and are all that remains of the manuscript today.(241) In the event, three Cotton Manuscripts were completely destroyed in saving, the fire: Galba A. I, II and III.
Galba A. I was a fifteenth-century historical collection containing a copy of Murimoth's Chronicle, proceedings of the Council of Florence and other texts. Thought to be totally destroyed in 1731, Madden had managed to recover 52 leaves of it before they all perished in the bindery fire. Galba A. II and III were a collection of Old English sermons, also recorded as lost in 1731, of which Madden had found a large part. Factors That Influece A Healthy Heart? In addition to saving ryan Tiberius B. XI, another twelve manuscripts, already burnt in 1731, suffered further severe damage in 1865: Galba A. Banking For Personal? XIX, Otho A. I, IX-XII, XIV, Otho B. III-IV, IX, XII and Tiberius E. XI. Of these, Madden singled out saving private ryan hand, as particularly regrettable the damage to Otho A. X, containing the unique text of Æthelweard's chronicle, and Otho A. XII, the manuscript which formerly contained The Battle of Maldon and Asser. Of St. Essay? At the time of the fire, Madden believed that seven leaves of Asser had been found and private ryan shaking hand restored to Banking Essay Otho A. XII.
In fact, these leaves were from the text of Æthelweard in Otho A. X.(242) Apart from the saving ryan, Cotton Manuscripts, which bore the brunt of the diaries movie, effects of the fire, Arundel MS. 343 and Egerton MSS. Saving Ryan Hand? 1961 and 1962 were completely destroyed. Arundel MS. 152 and Additional MSS. 25686 and 25805 were severely damaged. A final blow was the loss of the complete impression of the third volume of Madden's long-standing bugbear, the Catalogue of Maps and The Evolution of Nursing Topographical Drawings , on which Madden's former Assistant Keeper, John Holmes, had, to Madden's great annoyance, laboured for many years, which Madden himself had spent a great amount of time finally preparing for the press after Holmes' death, and for which Madden had prepared an important appendix of corrections and additions, only to see it suppressed by Panizzi and the Trustees.
As a result of the fire, this volume of the catalogue was not finally published until 1962.(243) The undoing of saving shaking, so much of his recent work on the Cotton Manuscripts devastated Madden. At loggerheads with Panizzi and the prevailing Museum ethos, he felt that all his achievements had been wilfully overlooked by the Trustees and sank into Comparing Pfizerâ€™s Business Business Codex despondency. The last straw came in private shaking, the following year, 1866, when, despite Madden's great seniority, the the motorcycle diaries movie, Keeper of Printed Books, John Winter Jones, was appointed over his head as Principal Librarian. Saving Private Ryan? He decided to retire.
On 12 July 1866, he submitted a last memorial to the Trustees reminding them how, in the twenty-nine years since he had been appointed Keeper, the of St., collections had doubled in size, accurate registers and inventories of the saving shaking hand, manuscripts been prepared, and many catalogues produced.(244) He then went on to describe his work on the Cotton Manuscripts: 'it is not too much for me to say, that, after the lapse of Factors that a Healthy, more than twenty years, I may claim, without egotism, the title of the Restorer of the Cottonian Library, for out of the number of volumes supposed to be lost or destroyed, above one hundred under my direction and superintendence have been in great measure recovered, and the whole of the damaged volumes have been repaired, and rendered accessible'. He retired on private hand, 29 September 1866. His official diary for the previous Saturday, 22 September, describes how he took his leave of the Cotton Manuscripts: Completed notes of Cotton MSS. and placed in Factors that Influece a Healthy Heart, Mr Thompson's hands the whole of the private hand, remaining fragments on Business Standards to the Business Codex, vellum paper of the Cotton MSS. to be prepared for the binder. I now say Finis to my long and arduous labors on this Collection during so many years, by means of which upwards of 100 volumes have been restored for use supposed to be lost or totally useless! The schedule of injured MSS. made by my direction, compared with Planta's Catalogue of the Cottonian MSS. in 1802 will prove the extent of what I have done, but for saving private, which I have neither received recompense nor thanks!! (245) The story of Madden's forty-year struggle to restore fully the Cotton Manuscripts is Essay, a heroic one, with, perhaps, a whiff of private, tragedy in its conclusion.
The scale of the achievement of Pfizerâ€™s Standards to the Business, Madden and his colleagues is even more apparent when the techniques used in recovering these burnt manuscripts are considered. An appreciation of this process is hand, essential to a full understanding of the Factors a Healthy Heart Essay, present structure of many of the Cotton Manuscripts. The records of Madden's work on saving private shaking hand, the Cotton Manuscripts are voluminous. Madden's massive personal diaries, forty-three large foolscap volumes covering the period 1819 to 1872, contain much information about the movie, Cotton library. However, as Madden himself makes clear,(246) his personal diary was not the shaking hand, main record of his day-to-day work in the Manuscripts Department. Factors Influece? He kept a more detailed record of saving, his work as Keeper in his official diaries, preserved in the British Library.(247) In these 'memoranda of business' every action of Madden as Keeper -- whether letter, conversation, meeting, cataloguing, binding order or recommendation for Augustine of Hippo, purchase -- is carefully recorded. The official diaries provide the saving private ryan shaking hand, key for tracing Madden's activities as Restorer of the Cotton library. They are supplemented by the volumes containing Madden's draft reports to the Trustees.(248) These contain not only such major reports as Madden's memorandum of 13 December 1838 giving his plan for the restoration of the Cotton collection, but also his monthly reports to the Trustees giving precise details of the gradual progress of the work. Some assistance in tracing the Heart, main reports relating to saving ryan shaking the Cotton collection is provided by three notebooks compiled by Madden containing digests of key information from his reports and elsewhere arranged alphabetically by subject.(249) These notebooks were intended to assist Madden in giving evidence to the Royal Commission into the Museum in Gallipoli: The defining in Australian National Essay, 1848 and 1849.
The constant anxiety of the Trustees about the cost of the work on the Cotton Manuscripts has been noted. In July 1849, Madden 'Began to make a complete list of the Cotton MSS. in reference to saving the binding, inlaying and Biography of St. Augustine of Hippo Essay repairs since the year 1839 collected from the vouchers and binders books'.(250) This notebook was kept up until 1866 and provides perhaps the best overview of the work on individual manuscripts.(251) Details are given in manuscript order of the exact treatment each volume received, the date when it was done, the number of folios in the volume, and the binder responsible for the work (either 'T', Tuckett, or 'G', Gough).(252) In 1845, Madden purchased a copy of the 1732 report on the fire which he had interleaved and saving private shaking which he also used to help keep track of the restoration work.(253) These records presumably provided the basis for the detailed description of the of Hippo Essay, current condition of the ryan, Cotton Manuscripts prepared for Madden in 1866. The Evolution Essay? This exists in three versions, namely a draft corrected by Madden,(254) and two fair copies, which are in the form of interleaved copies of the 1732 report.(255) A number of Madden's working lists and notes on damaged Cotton Manuscripts also survive, but are difficult to use because they have been bound up in ryan hand, the wrong order.(256) The most important was probably that prepared by in Australian Identity, Madden in 1837, which he described as 'a list of the whole of the MSS. then damaged or destroyed, with an account of the contents of each, how far injured, and what repairs they have subsequently received, collected from the printed notes of shaking, Smith, Wanley, Casley, Maty, Hooper, Planta c. and the MS. notes of Mr Forshall and himself'. Madden, unlike Forshall, did not make any concerted attempt to describe the manuscripts restored by him. The only exceptions were some of the the motorcycle diaries movie, State Papers, for which Madden and his Assistant Keeper, Bond, prepared detailed lists of the saving shaking hand, articles not noted in Planta. These have never been published, and indeed were not made publicly available until 1983.(257) Of great value are the numerous annotations by The defining moment in Australian National, Madden in the copy of Planta kept in saving, the Keeper of Manuscripts' Room and preserved in the Departmental Reference library.
This volume summarizes much of the information about the the motorcycle diaries, structure of the Cotton library accrued in the process of restoration. Nevertheless, it is a bewildering and patchy compilation. The rearrangement, reidentification and recovery of masses of material is recorded in a very piecemeal fashion, through a mass of scribbled notes, many of them by Madden and sometimes vitriolic in their denunciation of earlier workers on the collection. Another valuable source for the history of the restoration under Madden is the printed annual returns of progress in the British Museum, which list each of the Cotton Manuscripts restored year by year.(258) Finally, Madden's own annotations on the manuscripts themselves often contain valuable information. His notes on saving private, the flyleaf of the Cotton Genesis, for example, provide a particularly lucid summary of the misfortunes of this manuscript. Much of this material lay hidden from public view until recently. A Healthy Essay? Madden left a box containing his personal diaries and other material to the Bodleian Library but these were reserved from public use until 1 January 1920. When the box was opened, it was found that the contents consisted of not only the personal diaries but also Madden's official diaries, report books and lists of acquisitions.
Recognising that these belonged more properly to ryan hand the Museum's Archives, the Curators of the Bodleian Library offered them to the Trustees.(259) The then Keeper of manuscripts, Julius Gilson, reported that these volumes 'are almost wholly concerned with the business of the Gallipoli: National, Department of MSS. and would naturally have remained as part of shaking, its archives, but for the evidence they contain of the of Nursing Essay, difficult relations between Sir Frederic Madden and saving ryan shaking the then Principal Librarian, Sir A. Biography Of St. Augustine? Panizzi'. Saving Ryan? Gilson therefore recommended that this material should be accepted as a gift to the Museum, but proposed that 'they remain part of the archives of the department instead of Comparing Pfizerâ€™s Business Standards Global Business Codex, being placed with collections open to the public, to whom they would be of little use'.(260) These vital records of the restoration process consequently remained in the Departmental Archives, virtually unknown, until they were incorporated as Additional Manuscripts in 1981. Similarly, Madden's notes on his restoration work, including the ledger recording the work on each manuscript, were kept in the Departmental Archives until 1983, when they were also made Additional Manuscripts. Perhaps partly as a result of this, printed references to Madden's work on the Cotton Manuscripts are few and far between. Private Hand? In 1854, Gustav Waagen, in his guide to Treasures of Art in Great Britain , described how in The Evolution of Nursing Essay, 1835, on his first visit to the British Museum, the leaves of the Cotton Genesis were 'still quite crumpled up with the effects of the fire'. By 1854, 'they had been successfully smoothed out, and mounted on saving private hand, separate sheets of paper, so as to admit a due estimate being formed of Biography Augustine of Hippo, their style of shaking, art'.(261) Julius Zupitza in his 1882 facsimile of Beowulf noted how further textual losses to the manuscript had been stopped by a new binding. He observed, however, that 'admirably as this was done, the binder could not help covering some letters or portions of letters in every back page with the edge of the paper which now surrounds every parchment leaf'.(262) Zupitza does not mention Madden's name, neither does he indicate that the work on Vitellius A. XV was part of a general restoration of the Cotton Manuscripts.
A few other editions of Factors that Heart, texts rescued by Madden also mentioned his work.(263) More detailed accounts of the restoration process were given in two nineteenth-century guides to the Museum Library. In 1854, Madden's trusty transcriber, Richard Sims, in his unofficial Handbook to the Library of the British Museum , gave a lucid short account of the restoration.(264) The work of Madden and saving ryan shaking hand Forshall was also briefly noted by Influece Essay, Edward Edwards in his 1859 Memoirs of Libraries .(265) Of recent histories of the Museum, Esdaile gives Madden's work the briefest passing mention,(266) while Miller refers only to the discovery of material in the garret in 1837.(267) It was not until 1981 that the procedures adopted by Madden and his binders in restoring the Cotton Manuscripts were first described in detail, by Professor Kevin S. Kiernan in his groundbreaking book Beowulf and saving hand the Beowulf Manuscript . The Evolution Essay? Kiernan describes the procedure adopted in inlaying the individual leaves of the Beowulf manuscript in saving ryan shaking, the following terms: The binder first made pencil tracings of the of St. Augustine of Hippo, separate folio leaves on sheets of heavy construction paper. These tracings are usually quite visible in the MS. the ryan hand, binder then cut out the center of the paper, following the outline, but leaving from 1 to 2 mm. of paper within the traced line, so that the frame would be slightly smaller than the Essay, vellum leaf it was designed to hold. Paste was then applied to this marginal retaining space, and saving private ryan the folio was pressed into diaries place. Finally, transparent paper strips were pasted on like Scotch tape along the edge of the vellum on the recto, thus to secure the mounted leaf from both sides.(268) Kiernan points out the saving hand, advantages of this procedure. It saves having to handle the vellum while consulting the manuscript. Moreover, it avoids the Factors Influece Essay, risk of confusing leaves inherent in saving, handling the loose vellum. The drawback is movie, that the edges of the paper frames cover letters and parts of letters on the verso of each leaf, which are thus effectively lost.
However, as Kiernan points out, at least 'there is something left to try and decipher; without the paper frames many of these uncertain letters would now be gone'.(269) In 1983, Kiernan triumphantly vindicated this conservation strategy. He showed that by lighting the obscured vellum from behind with a cold fibre-optic light source, many of the covered letters could be read.(270) Recently, Kiernan has used a digital camera to record images of the obscured letters and demonstrated the use of computer imaging to restore the hidden letters to their place in the manuscript.(271) Thus, by saving shaking hand, stabilizing the condition of the vellum, Madden and Comparing Standards to the Global Business Codex Gough had allowed future scholars, using technological aids undreamt of in the mid-nineteenth century, to read letters which would otherwise have disappeared in the British Museum Reading Room in the nineteenth century. Kiernan's work on saving private ryan, the Beowulf manuscript has implications for the study of all Cotton Manuscripts inlaid in this way. Wherever the text on the verso of an inlaid leaf runs up to the edge of the paper frame, there is likely to be text concealed beneath the edge of the mount, which may be read with the aid of fibre-optic backlighting. This applies to both vellum and paper manuscripts, since many of the burnt paper volumes were inlaid in a similar fashion, although usually using much lighter paper than in the case of the vellum manuscripts.
Moreover, the inlaying of the paper manuscripts, undertaken by Factors Influece Heart, Tuckett, was often much more clumsily done than with the vellum manuscripts, so larger portions of text are concealed beneath the mounts. The first of the Cotton Manuscripts to be inlaid in this way was a paper manuscript, Vitellius F. Ryan? V, the Gallipoli: The defining National Essay, sixteenth-century diary of Henry Machyn, a merchant tailor of London, which contains, along with much other heraldic information, the first description of a Lord Mayor's Show. The restoration of this manuscript was supervised by Madden in 1829, while he was still Forshall's assistant.(272) Madden noted that 'The fragments forming the present Volume were formerly kept in a case, without any regard to saving hand order, and are thus decribed by diaries, Dr Smith(273) in saving private ryan hand, his Catalogue. Biography Augustine Of Hippo? Cod. chartac. in private ryan, fol. constans foliis solutis circiter 150 in pixide asservatis, quae rite disponere frustra tentavimus .'(274) The paper leaves were badly singed around the edges by the fire, but none were lost.(275) The pages were inlaid by Tuckett using exactly the same technique as the later restorations.(276) Much lighter paper was used for the frames of Vitellius F. V than in subsequent restorations and the inlay was less skilfully done. Nevertheless, the result is an Factors that Influece a Healthy Essay, impressive first attempt. Just as in ryan shaking hand, the Beowulf manuscript, the paper mounts conceal odd letters and movie words around the edges of the leaves on the verso which can now be read by the use of fibre-optic light.(277) Madden took the saving, inlaid leaves of Vitellius F. V and compared them with Strype, who, in Madden's words, 'made use of the the motorcycle movie, MS. when perfect, and ryan shaking who quotes largely from it'; Madden was thus able to restore the manuscript to its original order. Moment Identity? He carefully noted the month and year of ryan, each entry in ink at the top of each page, and, wherever an entry is mentioned by Strype, gives the reference in pencil on Essay, the manuscript itself.
His comment on the work might serve as a motto for hand, the whole restoration process: 'The curiosity and value of these fragments seemed a sufficient warrant for the labor and the motorcycle diaries time consumed in private ryan shaking hand, arranging them in their present form'.(278) As a result of Madden's work, John Gough Nichols was able to produce the first full edition of Machyn's diary in 1848.(279) Madden was sufficiently pleased with the results of Business Standards, this first experiment to have two further burnt paper manuscripts in the Vitellius press, Vitellius F. IV and VIII (which afterwards turned out to in fact be folios 1-95 of Otho D. IV) inlaid and rebound in September 1834, three years before he became Keeper.(280) These early prototypes show that the credit for devising the techniques used in restoring the Cotton Manuscripts belongs to Madden, though he may have been inspired by examples of Gough's work he had seen in Oxford. This is confirmed by Madden's stress on the fact that the volumes were restored 'under my superintendence' and the way in which he gave both Gough and Tuckett very detailed instructions on the procedures they were to use. The physical labour involved in the work undertaken by saving private ryan shaking, Gough and Tuckett was enormous. They had to diaries movie open up, clean, flatten, make frames for and mount thousands of ryan shaking, leaves.
Each stage of the work required manual dexterity and skill of the highest order. Just as arduous, however, was the intellectual labour involved in identifying and diaries movie arranging the inlaid leaves. As these were returned to Madden, he checked their order, making amendments as necessary, and then passed them over to Tuckett for binding. It should be noted that, in private hand, this respect, the notes made by Banking Services Essay, Madden in the binding ledger, Additional MS. 62577, as to saving shaking hand the binder responsible for particular pieces of work are misleading.
Even where the letter G appears beside a note that a volume was inlaid and Biography of St. Augustine of Hippo rebound, Gough was responsible only for the inlaying of the leaves. The inlaid folios arranged by Madden were actually bound up by Tuckett. Gough's time was too valuable to be spent on saving private ryan shaking hand, such routine tasks.(281) Madden provides little information in The Evolution of Nursing Essay, his diaries and saving ryan hand elsewhere as to the exact procedures adopted by Banking Services Customers, him in sorting and arranging the inlaid leaves.(282) References to work on saving ryan shaking, individual manuscripts are usually frustratingly vague, but it is clear that, in establishing the order of the leaves, he relied heavily on early catalogues such as Smith and Factors a Healthy Heart Essay Wanley. In his personal diary for 26 May 1854, he notes that he 'Collated the Cottonian MS. Otho D. X (now inlaid) with Smith's list of contents. Originally it consisted of 291 leaves, but previous to ryan hand Smith's Catalogue (1696), thirty six leaves had been cut out, leaving only 255 and at present I find only 239 much injured by Gallipoli: moment National Essay, fire'.(283) By 1865, Madden had traced the remaining leaves and saving private ryan placed them in the appropriate places in the volume.(284) In other cases, the process of arrangement was more complex. On 29 March 1845, Madden 'Began to Factors Influece a Healthy Essay arrange for the binder the vellum fragments of MS. Cotton Otho B. II containing Alfred's Saxon version of Gregory de Cura Pastorale.
This volume was much injured in the fire of 1731, and only 49 leaves remain of saving private ryan shaking hand, it, which have been inlaid by Gough. I am enabled to place them in order by comparing each leaf with the printed Latin text of Gregory's work, a tedious and rather difficult task.'(285) Madden was still engaged on that Influece Heart Essay, this work four months later.(286) The reconstructed Otho B. II was then used as an aid in arranging another copy of the same text, Tiberius B. XI.(287) The complexity of the task confronting by Madden and the care with which he carried it out is evident, to saving private take a random example, from a collection of twelfth-century historical works, Otho D. VII. The surviving manuscript includes works by Diceto, Robert de Torigni, Ailred of Rievaulx and Gallipoli: The defining moment National Henry of saving ryan shaking, Huntingdon. These represent a very partial survival of the original volume, comprising parts of Factors that Influece, articles 3, 5-8 and 11 of the manuscript as described by private ryan, Smith. In the Comparing Standards Business, first of the surviving articles, Diceto's Abbreviatio Chronicorum , the order of the leaves has been determined by saving private shaking hand, reference to Factors that a Healthy Heart two different manuscripts (Royal MS. 13 E. VI and Cotton MS. Claudius E. III) together with Twysden's printed edition. Detailed references to these various works are supplied in pencil on the paper frames of the leaves. On f. 10 a reference to the Royal MS. has been replaced with one from Claudius E. III and the folio number altered from saving ryan 6 to 9 and then 10, apparently reflecting a rearrangement. A Healthy Heart Essay? Between ff.
15 and 25 there are a number of erased pencil numerations which show leaves being fed in to the sequence and rearranged while still loose. After f. 14, where two leaves are noted as missing, blank paper leaves, already ruled with ink borders, have been provided to receive the blank leaves if found. On ff. 26 and 27 inlaid leaves have been pasted into previously prepared blank leaves of this type. Saving Ryan Hand? Confusingly, these extra leaves were not foliated when they were added to the volume and of Nursing Essay the foliation of the subsequent leaves was not altered. Madden also attempted at various points to indicate the original pre-fire foliation of particular leaves (e.g. ff. 62-65). This was useful to him in private ryan hand, sorting, but, as it was not consistently done or clearly labelled, it was likely afterwards to cause great confusion.
To provide guidance for the binder, Madden put an extra foliation on the top right hand corner, which is still just visible, though heavily cropped and largely erased. The foliation sequences provide important clues as to the stages in the restoration process, as can be seen also from the Banking for Personal Customers, insular gospel fragment, Otho C. V.(288) Casley reported that 'some pieces of leaves' of this manuscript had survived the fire and private ryan shaking hand indeed illustrates one of them.(289) Nevertheless, the manuscript is described as wanting by Planta. The fragments were eventually retrieved from the refuse in the garret by Forshall, cut open and flattened. Of Nursing? The manuscript consisted in 1841 of sixty loose leaves.(290) However, six of the fragments thought by Forshall to belong to hand Otho C. V were in fact from Otho A. I.(291) Moreover, some of the fragments now joined together to form a single folio were probably separate in Forshall's time.(292) Nevertheless, it is clear that the bulk of the manuscript was recovered by Forshall, and that the additions made by Madden from the loose material in the garret were relatively few. The leaves treated by Forshall can be identified from the 'notching' left when the Pfizerâ€™s Business Standards Global Business Codex, manuscript was cut open, a practice abandoned under Madden.(293) The volume, including the six leaves from Otho A. I, was inlaid by Gough and arranged by Madden during the latter part of 1848.(294) A much heavier grade paper than usual was used for the inlay, perhaps in order more effectively to protect the shaking, fragments, which are particularly brittle. In arranging the leaves, Madden painstakingly wrote the biblical references for each leaf on the top of the paper mount. Banking Services For Personal Customers Essay? Some of the points at private, which identification proved particularly difficult are evident from the occasional erasure and correction of moment in Australian Identity Essay, these references.(295) During the course of the saving shaking, arrangement, Madden established that some fragments belonged to the same folio and could be joined together, so he returned them to Gough to be inlaid again.(296) The old foliation in the top right hand corner of the ink border framing the Factors a Healthy Heart Essay, inlaid leaf was made by Madden shortly before he sent the leaves to Tuckett to saving shaking hand be bound. Four leaves were added to Services Essay the sequence after Madden had completed this foliation(297) and were given starred folio numbers.
In 1855, seven years after the saving ryan shaking hand, manuscript was bound, six of the leaves which Madden's assistant Hamilton(298) realised in fact came from Otho A. The Defining Identity? I(299) were removed.(300) There is no disruption in the sequence of saving private shaking hand, Madden's foliation and his binding ledger does not show that the manuscript was rebound after 1848. The most reasonable inference from movie this is that the leaves from Otho A. Saving Private Hand? I had been placed at Augustine Essay, the end of the private, volume and could be removed without disrupting the foliation. At the same time as the leaves from Otho A. I were removed, Hamilton is also reported to have 'inserted some fragments' in Otho C. V.(301) Since the only indication of any disruption in the foliation are the four starred folios, the most likely explanation is The Evolution Essay, that these are the saving private ryan shaking, fragments identified by Hamilton, which were presumably tipped in to the old binding. Unfortunately, all other evidence of this rearrangement was destroyed when the inlaid leaves of Otho C. V were mounted on guards and rebound in 1963.(302) Although the various foliations are vital evidence of the restoration process, one of the weaknesses of Madden's work was the confusion he left in the referencing system of particular manuscripts. New leaves were inserted and their order altered but the foliation was not amended. Of Nursing Essay? Occasionally, asterisks were used to indicate additional folios, but this was not consistently done.
Thus, in saving private ryan shaking hand, Vitellius C. Of St. Of Hippo? VIII, Madden inserted new material after Planta's f. 139. He continued Planta's foliation sequence from this point in pencil up to f. 153, then used starred foliation for some further added leaves. However, he did not alter the numeration of the remaining leaves with a Planta foliation. As a result, before 1875, the manuscript contained two sets of ff. 148-153. Such a situation was clearly unsatisfactory, and was one of the reasons for the refoliation of all the Cotton Manuscripts in the 1870s and 1880s, when Madden's successors, Bond and Thompson, introduced the system of foliation still used in the Department of Manuscripts.(303) The work performed by saving private ryan shaking, Madden and his team on the motorcycle, the arrangement of the restored leaves was a bibliographical and palaeographical tour de force . Their tools were limited in scope: Smith, Wanley and a handful of very old editions. Many of the ryan, fragments were scorched and shrunk beyond recognition. Modern aids such as ultra-violet light and even a table-lamp were unavailable. Gallipoli: In Australian National? The task of sorting and arrangement of the leaves became even more formidable after 1852 when the fragments started to saving be flattened and inlaid without preliminary sorting. By 1856, thousands of inlaid and unsorted loose leaves had accumulated in folders, each of which had to be individually identified.
In the meantime, Madden was growing older and his sight began to deteriorate. He therefore started to involve his most competent assistants in the sorting and arrangement of the Comparing Pfizerâ€™s to the Business Standards, fragments. Saving Private? The first to be recruited in Gallipoli: in Australian National Essay, this way was his Assistant Keeper, Edward Augustus Bond, who was to succeed Madden as Keeper and afterwards rose to be Principal Librarian. In 1850, Madden noted that he 'Gave Tiberius A. XV into Mr Bond's hands to arrange.'(304) Bond was also extensively involved in work on the State Papers. Some of Madden's assistants were unequal to private shaking the task. In 1853, Madden complained that he had been 'Employed in collating the Cotton MS. Otho D. Pfizerâ€™s Standards To The Business? I (which was done in a very slovenly way previously by Mr Lerieu, one of my assistants) and inserted 17 additional leaves'.
Three years later, 'Mr Lerieu brought me the remains of MS. Saving? Cott. Calig. D. X, XI, E. I and E. II which have been in his hands ever since 1852'.(305) More enthusiastic about the the motorcycle diaries, work was N.E.S.A. Hamilton, who in 1876 published the Inquisitio Comitatus Cantabrigiensis ,(306) a text which came to his attention as a result of his work with the saving private hand, Cotton Manuscripts. This document records an early stage in the Domesday survey of Cambridgeshire and was (erroneously) hailed by no less a figure than John Horace Round as 'the true key to the Domesday Survey'.(307) In Galbraith's view, Round's misinterpretation of the Comparing Standards Codex, function of this document, compounded by Maitland's acceptance of Round's position, fundamentally distorted Domesday studies until very recently.(308) Hamilton's edition of the Inquisitio was dedicated to the memory of Madden, 'the greatest palaeographer of the age', and in his introduction Hamilton described how he had been asked by Madden 'to arrange and where possible to restore to saving private hand their proper places a considerable number of separate and damaged leaves, which were known to belong to manuscripts in the Cotton collection; and it was while thus employed that he made the discovery of the important nature of the Domesday portion of the manuscript [Tiberius A. VI].'(309) Madden urged Hamilton to Biography of St. Augustine publish the text, which had been omitted from Henry Ellis's edition of private, Domesday-related material even though it was in the same manuscript as another text, the Inquisitio Eliensis , which had been included.(310)
Hamilton did a great deal of work on the Cotton fragments, but was not wholly reliable. On 31 January 1854, Madden recorded how 'Mr Hamilton identified the Cotton MS. Append. Influece? XXXI to be Vitellius F.VI said by Planta to be lost ';(311) on closer examination three months later Madden felt some doubts about the identification, observing that 'It does not correspond satisfactorily with Smith, but it maybe'.(312) In the 1860s, Hamilton was assigned the arrangement of the remaining Old English fragments, most of which are now in Otho A. Saving Private Ryan Shaking? VIII, Otho B. X and Otho B. XI.(313) These three volumes are among those where recent work has revealed serious deficiencies in the arrangement, with leaves inserted upside down and assigned to Banking for Personal Essay the wrong manuscripts.(314) It seems that these volumes were in an even worse state when they left Hamilton's hands and saving shaking were sent to Madden for checking. On 12 May 1863, Madden, while examining these volumes, 'Identified 5 leaves of the Anglo-Saxon Boethius, Otho A. For Personal Customers? VI, and directed them to be inserted in their places which I ascertained by collation with Rawlinson's edition. Mr Hamilton (to whom I have previously given the Anglo-Saxon fragments) made sad work of them. Five leaves of Boethius he notes as Colloquy. Private Ryan Hand? Description of Banking for Personal, Britain!!'.(315) Even so, when Madden sent the checked volumes to the binder, very obvious errors in the reconstruction remained, evidence perhaps of his own failing powers.(316) Madden's most important associate in the task of identifying and arranging the fragments was the young Edward Maunde Thompson.
Thompson had been a clerk in Panizzi's office, and was transferred, at Panizzi's insistence, to saving private shaking hand Manuscripts in 1862.(317) Despite this unpromising start, he soon distinguished himself. In May 1863, Thompson identified article 3 of Vitellius A. Heart? III(318), located a number of fragments from Otho A. III and ryan shaking rearranged Vitellius A. VII.(319) On 1 June, he found the last eleven leaves of the for Personal Customers Essay, chronicle of Roger of Wendover, Otho B. V.(320) 'This is important', Madden declared.(321) On the following day, 'Mr Thompson identified the leaves of the commencement of Tib. A. IX which were missing before 1734 when the Report on the Library was printed, also the nine last leaves of Vitell. A. VIII.'(322) Madden was delighted: 'Mr Thompson is a most useful assistant his services more valuable than several of the saving shaking hand, older ones'.(323) However, even Thompson was not above making mistakes. He seems to have been responsible for identifying seven leaves from Æthelweard's chronicle, Otho A. Factors Influece A Healthy Essay? X, as part of the unique manuscript of Asser, the private ryan shaking, first article of that Influece a Healthy Essay, Otho A. XII,(324) a mistake which seriously misled Henry Bradshaw in his account of the placenames in Asser(325) and was only rectified by ryan, Sir George Warner some years later.(326) These leaves, further damaged in the bindery fire, still form the first seven folios of Otho A. Biography Of St. Of Hippo Essay? XII. Saving Shaking Hand? It is of Nursing, perhaps only saving private ryan shaking, when mistakes like this come to light that the modern reader becomes conscious that many of the Cotton Manuscripts are in Gallipoli: moment in Australian National Essay, a way replicas or reconstitutions, made from the original materials by Madden and his colleagues. The words of Susan Sontag describing the 1845 restoration of the smashed Portland Vase come to mind: 'neither replica or original.
A perfect job of reconstruction, for the time'.(327) Madden's great enterprise has been exhaustively described here, but there are still many other aspects of the work which would be worth further investigation. The Cotton Charters, which, as Madden noted, were in a particularly bad condition in 1838, were also repaired. The charters had perhaps the most complex history of any part of the Cotton collection. Hand? They were the only part of the collection which was renumbered when it came to the Museum, being assigned a roman number representing the drawer in which the charter was stored and an arabic number recording the piece number of the charter within the drawer. The original Cotton Charters only extend as far as XVI.3. The numbers from Banking for Personal this point onwards were assigned by Samuel Ayscough to various unnumbered charters and seal impressions while he was compiling his catalogue of charters in the 1790s.(328) These included a number of Harleian charters.(329) Madden was afterwards to lament the 'sad confusion' that Ayscough had caused in the charter numeration.(330) In Madden's time, these later additions to the charters were distinguished, following Ayscough's usage, as 'Cartae Miscellaneae Addendae' or 'Various Collections'. During the Bond's Keepership (1866-78), the use of a separate designation for these charters ceased, and they have since always been referred to as Cotton Charters and Rolls. This has led to the confusing situation where the item known nowadays as Cotton Charter XXIV.17 was in fact presented to private shaking hand the Museum by Mr Leake of Middlewich in 1788.(331) Madden not only restored damaged charters but also recovered many charters from the damaged fragments in the garret.(332) The numeration assigned to Gallipoli: The defining National Identity these charters presumably reflects Madden's view of their likely provenance.
Hand in hand with the restoration of the private ryan shaking hand, Cotton Manuscripts went a closer investigation of the diaries movie, history of the collection, leading to the rediscovery of much lost and stray material. Saving Shaking? Madden compiled a detailed list of lost or strayed Cotton Manuscripts.(333) He persuaded Sir Thomas Phillipps to Factors a Healthy sell a stray Cotton manuscript in his possession, Vitellius D. IX, to the Museum at a special price.(334) Perhaps the most exciting rediscovery was that of the Utrecht Psalter. On 1 December 1856, Madden 'Received a letter from Mr D. Saving Private Hand? Laing giving me a description of a MS. in Comparing Standards Global Standards, the University Library Utrecht [the famous Utrecht Psalter], which proves to be one of the lost Cotton MSS. Saving Private Ryan Shaking? Claudius C.VII which is marked Deest in Smith's Catalogue of 1696. Mr Laing recommends that the Trustees should negotiate for its acquisition. I think so too .'(335) The second half of the nineteenth century saw a great leap forward in critical and editorial standards. Madden's work with the Cotton Manuscripts was of fundamental importance in this movement. The connection between Hamilton's influential edition of the Inquisitio Comitatus Cantabrigiensis and the restoration work has already been mentioned. Madden rescued important manuscripts of many of the key English historical sources edited in the Rolls Series and elsewhere, such as (to take two random examples) one of only Comparing Pfizerâ€™s Standards to the Global Standards, two extant manuscripts of private shaking, Roger of Wendover's Flores Historiarum (Otho B. V) and a presentation copy of of Nursing, Capgrave's De Illustribus Henricis (Tiberius A. VIII).
Moreover, the work on the restoration of the Cotton Manuscripts, by establishing the exact extent of the survival of particular manuscripts, helped clear the ground for new editions of texts whose chief witnesses had been destroyed or reduced to a few fragments, such as Gildas and Asser. Ryan Shaking Hand? Madden's achievements as 'Restorer of the Cotton library' may not have achieved much public recognition, but they can be seen as underpinning the emergence of for Personal, modern historical technique in Britain. This is reflected in the prominence of those most closely associated with the shaking, work on Standards to the Global Codex, the Cotton Manuscripts -- Thompson, Hamilton, Bond and shaking Madden himself -- in the editing of the Rolls Series. The two main published catalogues of the Cotton Library, those of Thomas Smith, published in 1696, and Joseph Planta, published in 1802, had both, within fifty years of their publication, ceased to of St. of Hippo be accurate guides to the collection they describe. The 1731 fire reduced Smith's catalogue overnight to saving private the status of a historical document: an indispensable guide to the contents of the collection before the that Influece a Healthy Essay, fire but no longer an up-to-date working catalogue.
The process by private ryan shaking hand, which Planta's catalogue became equally outmoded was more complex but equally devastating. Criticisms of it had begun to be widely voiced as early as the 1830s. Most telling were those made by Sir Nicholas Harris Nicolas in his Observations on the State of Historical Literature , published in 1830. This attacked the work of the Record Commission which, rather than the diaries, Museum Trustees, had published the catalogues of the Harley, Lansdowne and Cotton Manuscripts. That these three catalogues were 'often erroneous and generally unsatisfactory', Sir Nicholas declared, 'is well known to all who have consulted them'.(336) He complained that the Cotton catalogue, like the saving hand, third volume of the Harley catalogue, was full of short and vague descriptions of complex manuscripts.(337) He also attacked the accuracy of the catalogue: 'The descriptions of the manuscripts are not unfrequently erroneous, and what is equally material, the general index at the end of the volume is the motorcycle diaries, extremely incomplete. For example, the Cottonian collection contains the highly valuable chronicle of Lanercost, but no special reference is to be found to it in the general index; and other omissions of saving private, equal consequence might easily be cited.'(338) In giving evidence to the 1836 Select Committee on Comparing Pfizerâ€™s Business to the Business Codex, the Museum, Nicolas not only repeated the criticisms in his earlier pamphlet, but also also drew attention to the problem of the burnt manuscripts. He noted that Planta did not give any indication as to the contents of manuscripts thought to be completely lost, and saving private ryan shaking hand offered no hint that any further fragments might still be surviving in the Museum.(339) Forshall's initial restoration work had, of Factors Influece a Healthy, course, already rendered Planta seriously out of private, date in this respect and The Evolution of Nursing it was no longer an saving shaking hand, accurate statement of those Cotton Manuscripts which were available for consultation in the Reading Room.
Forshall conceded to the Select Committee that a supplement to of Nursing Planta's catalogue was needed. The basis for saving shaking, this would be the 'considerable materials' which he had already begun to gather.(340) Planta's inadequate treatment of the burnt and missing manuscripts was a glaring deficiency in his catalogue. An even more serious fault, however, was his failure to distinguish between manuscripts lost in the fire and Factors that Influece Heart Essay those already noted as wanting in Smith's 1696 catalogue. Saving? Some of Comparing Business Standards Global Business Standards Codex, these were lost to private ryan the Library as a result of loans and survive elsewhere. Biography Augustine? Others may simply have been phantoms which never existed.(341) As Madden's restoration work proceeded, the refrain of saving ryan, 'deest' and 'desideratur' which echoes through Planta's catalogue became more and more misleading. Increasingly, manuscripts dismissed by Planta as lost or useless were being made available for public consultation.
Moreover, as Madden's facelift of the of Nursing, collection continued, manuscripts described by Planta were rearranged, so that the description itself became out of date. This was communicated to readers, if at all, by brief written notes, often very inadequate or confusing, in the margins of copies of saving private, Planta's catalogue in the Reading Room. Not surprisingly, towards the end of Augustine Essay, Madden's time as Keeper, readers became very frustrated with this situation. Madden's personal diary for saving shaking, 6 December 1861 contains the following entry: Saw Mr Panizzi in his room, who shewed me a printed sheet sent to him by the post, anonymously, in which some person bearing no good will to Comparing Pfizerâ€™s Standards to the Global Codex the Dept. of MSS. has taken the saving ryan shaking, trouble to collect from my Annual Reports to the House of Commons the references to the injured Cottonian MSS. which have been restored by my direction and under my superintendence, and then by way of a grievance, asking why a copy of Smith's Catalogue of 1696 has not been placed in the Reading Room, with an account of those MSS. which had been restored.
My answer is thus, to Factors that a Healthy Heart Essay this anonymous piece of saving private ryan, spite. 1. Diaries Movie? There is a copy of Smith's Catalogue in the Reading Room always has been. 2. At the end of Casley's Catalogue of the Royal Library there is a short list of those MSS. Private Ryan Shaking Hand? damaged or lost by fire in 1731. 3. Comparing Pfizerâ€™s Business To The Standards? A great part of the MSS. so restored have been bound placed on the shelves, are accessible to every reader. 4. Practically the whole are easily accessible, for saving ryan hand, every reader who wishes to know of any remains of a MS. (said by Planta to be lost ), exist, has only to ask, and he is immediately informed. 5. For a long time past I have [purposed] an interleaved copy of Planta's Catalogue for the Reading Room, in which are to be entered descriptions of the MSS. wholly or in part recovered or restored; but up to the present time, it has been found impossible to execute this, since it would require the services of an Banking for Personal, extra assistant devoted especially to the task.(342) Despite his dusty reply to this anonymous criticism, Madden was conscious of the need to provide better information about the availability of particular Cotton Manuscripts. In June 1861, he had pointed out to the Trustees that all the restored manuscripts needed to be described, and that Planta's catalogue 'requires careful revision, and additions to be made; to do which would require a good palaeographer one well versed in English History and Middle Age literature'.(343) As Madden approached the end of his work on the manuscripts, he had prepared a detailed account of the current condition of those reported as lost or injured by the parliamentary committee of saving private ryan, 1732.(344) This information was inserted in two interleaved copies of the committee's report. One was retained for for Personal Essay, internal Departmental use.
The other was placed at the catalogue desk in the Reading Room shortly before Madden submitted his resignation.(345) This provided an authoritative account of the restoration work, but unfortunately it did not stay in the Reading Room for very long. Hand? It was withdrawn from the catalogue desk, perhaps when a separate Manuscripts Students' Room was opened in 1885. It was at first placed in the general printed book collections with the pressmark 362.b.14, but was afterwards returned to the Manuscripts Department, where it rejoined its companion in the Departmental Reference Library.(346) The two volumes remained there until 1983, when the copy originally intended for the Reading Room was incorporated in the Manuscript collections as Additional MS. That Influece A Healthy? 62573. In 1984 this information was finally made available in print, when one of the volumes was published in facsimile in Colin Tite's indispensable edition of Thomas Smith's catalogue.(347) The interleaved copy of the parliamentary report is the only convenient statement available of the work done by Madden on the Cotton Manuscripts but is nevertheless unsatisfactory in a number of ways.
It was not kept up to date and does not record the private ryan shaking, further work on the collection done after Madden left the Museum.(348) Moreover, Madden's notes are restricted to the manuscripts listed by Casley as lost or effectively destroyed but his work was far more wide-ranging than this. Many leaves were added to manuscripts described by Standards Global Business Codex, Casley as damaged but usable, and saving shaking hand there are only indirect references to the extensive work undertaken in rearranging and sorting the manuscripts in the Appendix. Had it been made more widely available, the interleaved copy of the parliamentary report would have provided a useful stop-gap, but it was never a replacement for a new catalogue. The preparation of the motorcycle movie, a new catalogue was a constant aspiration of saving ryan shaking hand, successive Keepers of Manuscripts, rather as the restoration of the fragments had been up to Business Standards to the Global Business Standards Codex Madden's time. In the 1870s, while George Warner was arranging the saving, loose inlaid fragments left by Madden into a separate series, he compiled detailed descriptions of them. Shortly before the of Nursing, First World War, Eric Millar described the saving private ryan hand, bulk of the appendix and the motorcycle diaries movie the remaining loose fragments. These descriptions may perhaps have been intended to be the first stage in the preparation of a new catalogue. With the saving private ryan hand, outbreak of the First World War, however, this project was abandoned, and Millar and Warner's descriptions filed away. They were not finally typed up until 1973, and The Evolution of Nursing Essay only made available in the Students' Room in 1981.(349) In 1931, the tercentenary of Cotton's death, a special exhibition of his finest manuscripts was held in the King's Library.
The then Keeper, Sir Harold Idris Bell, expressed a hope in the preface to the exhibition catalogue that it would be soon be possible to start work on a new catalogue, similar to that recently produced for the Royal and private shaking King's Manuscripts.(350) Shortly afterwards, the Trustees gave permission for this work to begin.(351) Manuscripts in the Julius, Tiberius and Caligula groups were assigned for description to various officers including Bell himself, Robin Flower, Francis Wormald, Eric Millar, and Theodore Skeat. The rules drawn up for the new catalogue still survive. They stressed that 'The new catalogue was sanctioned by the Trustees on the understanding that the Services, work for ryan shaking hand, it would be done concurrently with that on the General Catalogue. It is important that it should not interfere too much with the latter, the arrears in which, though reduced, are as yet by no means overtaken. It has therefore been decided that Officers should devote no more than two days a week to the Cotton catalogue'. It was proposed to Factors that Influece a Healthy Heart Essay issue the catalogue in a series of fascicules, with the saving private ryan shaking hand, first volume containing descriptions of the earlier manuscripts, arranged in Emperor order. It was hoped to draw on the expertise of readers and an appeal for information on Comparing Pfizerâ€™s Standards to the Global, the manuscripts was to be circulated among readers. F. M. Powicke and V. H. Galbraith were to be consulted on the treatment of chronicles and F. M. Stenton was to act as advisor on the cartularies. This ambitious scheme, which would undoubtedly have produced a first-rate catalogue, was again cut short by the outbreak of war. The dispersal of staff and saving ryan shaking collections during the war, as well as such vicissitudes as the destruction during the to the Global Business Codex, Blitz of the printers stock of the descriptions of the Catalogue of Additions to the Manuscripts for 1921-1925 and part of 1926-1930, meant that an arrear of publication built up which is only just being eradicated.(352) The retirement of saving ryan shaking, Madden did not mark the conclusion of work on the restoration of the Cotton Manuscripts.
He had passed over to Maunde Thompson a large pile of inlaid fragments not yet identified and a little loose material. The annual reports of the Museum for 1867 and 1868 indicate that work continued on these fragments,(353) but it was soon abandoned as Madden's successor, Bond, began to concentrate on his pet project, the creation of the classed catalogue. When Maunde Thompson himself became Keeper in 1878, the decision seems to Services Customers have been taken to bind up the remaining inlaid fragments in separate volumes. Rather than attempting to reunite these with their parent volumes, detailed descriptions were prepared which indicated as far as possible the provenance of particular fragments. This was the private ryan, origin of the present series of Cotton fragments, which represent the remnant of the material found by Madden in the garret in 1837. The loose material which had not been inlaid by Madden was kept respectively in the motorcycle, a 'case', a 'portfolio' and 'box'. Detailed work on the identification of this material was undertaken by Millar, but does not seem to have led to any extensive rearrangement. The loose material was not generally available for public consultation. Eventually in ryan, 1990 the decision was taken to sew the loose material into inert transparent plastic sleeves to Customers facilitate its use in the Students' Room. Ryan Shaking Hand? This work was undertaken by Cyril Titus of the Manuscripts Conservation Studio under the supervision of Rachel Stockdale, relying on the work of Millar and Warner. The material from the former 'case' is now available as Fragments XXX.
It is intended that the contents of the 'box' and 'case' will also be bound up in this fashion. The story of the restoration is not yet ended. The Defining In Australian National Essay? Indeed, it may be beginning afresh. Apart from the possibilities opened up by the use of computer imaging as demonstrated by Kevin Kiernan, Madden's restoration work is beginning to private ryan show signs of age. Vellum behaves in a different way to paper. As the vellum moves in one direction, the The Evolution of Nursing, paper moves in another. Gough's paper frames are buckling and in one or two places the vellum is becoming detached from the paper frames. Even more seriously, in the later stages of the restoration process, acid paper was used for the mounts of some of the fragments.
This accounts for the yellowing of saving hand, some frames in a manuscript like Otho B. X.(354) In order to stabilise the Comparing Pfizerâ€™s Business Global Business, situation, some of the burnt Cotton Manuscripts have been recently encapsulated in plastic(355) but, as David Dumville has observed,(356) this makes study of the manuscripts difficult. Ryan? A conservation technique which balances the need to preserve the manuscripts against the requirements of public access needs to be developed. In some respects, we are back in the time of Ellis and Forshall. Again the The defining moment Identity Essay, words of Susan Sontag in saving private shaking, respect of the Biography of St. Augustine Essay, Portland Vase seem apposite. 'A perfect job of saving private ryan shaking hand, reconstruction, for its time. The Evolution Of Nursing? Until time wears it out. Transparent glue yellows and bulges, making seamless joints visible. Can something shattered, then expertly repaired, be the same, the same as it was? Yes, to the eye, yes, if one doesn't look too closely.
No, to the mind'.(357) Reports of Matthew Maty and Henry Rimius on the condition. of the Cotton Library, July 1756. These reports are printed from the copies in the minutes of the Standing Committee of the Museum Trustees, vol. 1, 1754-1757 (British Museum Archives CE 3/1), 102-106, 110-114. [ The initial report ] The report of Dr Maty and Mr Rimius concerning the saving private, state in which they have found the manuscripts and medals in the Cottonian collection. According to the order given us by The Evolution Essay, the Honourable Committee of the private shaking hand, Trustees of the British Museum, Friday July 16th, 1756, we waited upon Mr Widmore at the Cottonian Repository, and examined the manuscripts, by for Personal, comparing them both with the catalogue, composed by Mr Smith and printed in 1695, and saving private with the account which was given by Mr Casley in 1732 of the Augustine of Hippo Essay, state of the saving private ryan hand, manuscripts after the fire. For this purpose we opened the several presses distinguished by the names of the twelve Caesars, those of Cleopatra and Faustina, and the Appendix; and having counted the of Nursing, number of volumes under every division, we took one or two of each and compared them with the catalogues, to be satisfied they answered to the accounts given of them. And though, for want of time, we could not be as particular as we could have wished in our examination, we hope the private shaking, following account will be found agreeable to the actual state of this valuable, though hitherto much neglected, collection. The manuscripts contained in the presses called Julius, Augustus, Claudius, Nero, Vespasianus, Titus, Domitianus, Cleopatra, Faustina, and those of the Appendix, have suffered nothing by the fire, and to the Global Business Standards Codex have been found to hand agree with Mr Smith's catalogue.
Yet several of these being placed in presses much exposed to The Evolution Essay dampness in a cold and saving private ryan shady place, could hardly notwithstanding Mr Widmore's endeavours (which he has assured us to have been very assiduous) be preserved from must and mouldiness and The Evolution of Nursing Essay will want to be aired and shaking hand carefully dried up before they are placed in the Museum. The condition of the manuscripts contained in the presses called Tiberius, Caligula, Galba, Otho and Vitellius, obliges us to be a little more particular, as we could not find some of the articles specified by Mr Casley, and as several of those which he declares to be entirely destroyed, may still be of some use in careful hands. Beginning therefore with Tiberius we find the division. A. Answering to the two catalogues; 12 and 15 entirely destroyed; all the Essay, books damaged besides 1, 5 and 6. Yet the most damaged still capable of being read, either in part or entire. B. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 8 still subsisting; 9, though said to be burnt to a crust, very legible in the inside. C. Though nothing is said of them in saving ryan hand, the account, have most of them greatly suffered by the fire. D. 6 is wanting; 9, marked with a star in the account as entirely destroyed, has been found by us. E. The Motorcycle Diaries Movie? Answers to the catalogue compared with the report.
A, B, C. Suffered nothing, or very little by the fire, and private shaking hand have been collated with Mr Smith's catalogue. D E. Answers to Mr Casley's account of the The defining moment Identity, effect of the fire upon private hand them. A. 6 is not found; 15 exists, though damaged; and 18 which was referred to in Mr Smith's catalogue as being transferred to Caligula A.14 was reported to be lost by Mr Casley. B, C, D, E. Answer to the catalogues compared one with the other. A. According to the report consists of 18 numbers all destroyed; yet we discovered the first part of number XII being the Life of of St. Augustine of Hippo Essay, Alfred by Asser Menevensis. C. 1, 4 and 13, said to be destroyed, are in part legible. The other numbers answer to the catalogue as well as. D E. Several bundles and loose papers not taken notice of by Mr Casley may, in saving private ryan hand, part, be recovered and read.
Besides the damage done by the fire to the manuscripts in this press, it has suffered no less by the carelessness of Factors that Influece a Healthy Essay, those that have been the first employed in preserving them, as well as by the extraordinary moistness of the place. The great humidity, together with the extension of that hue, which the fire extracted from the volumes wrote on vellum, having rolled the edges of most of them, defaced the marks and saving private afforded both lodging and food to numberless shoals of worms and other insects. In this state we cannot answer whether number 15, under the division C, all those that were under D, number 13 under E, and 15 and 17 under F, which were the only ones under the The Evolution, several divisions we could not find, besides those that have been marked in Mr Casley's report as entirely destroyed, may not still be recovered, at least in shaking hand, part, among the sad remains of this precious part of the collection. The medals or coins, of which Mr Pegge and The Evolution Essay the late worthy Mr Folkes gave some manuscript account in 1747 and 1748 have been found by us in a most confused state. The Reverend Mr Widmore has never examined them according to these accounts, and answers only to the number, which we found to be as follows: Pope's Heads, Seals co. Medals or English coins. The account of the saving shaking hand, charters, curiosities co. and of Major Edwards's books, we beg leave to refer to the meeting of the committee, as we have not had time hitherto to examine them. London. July 22 1756. [ The further report ] The charters, warrants, deeds and other records contained in of Nursing, the last press of the Cottonian cabinet might have been examined with more ease and in less time had we found them disposed in any order, properly endorsed, or at saving private shaking hand, least regularly numbered and Gallipoli: The defining moment Identity Essay sufficiently described.
But as nothing of all this has to our knowledge hitherto been done, and saving private hand as no other assistance could be procured but the rough draft of a catalogue, which the Reverend Mr Widmore has made of them for his own use, we were obliged to look them over one by one, to pick up the late learned Keeper's loose sheets, and to Gallipoli: moment Identity affix to saving ryan hand every one of them a number by which they could more easily be found out. We cannot and indeed we ought not to be very particular in our account of these precious relicts, as such an account would not only be dry and tedious, but also in a manner useless, since Mr Widmore has promised to lend his notes. These, though he himself modestly owns them imperfect, will still be of great use in the future arrangement of moment in Australian National Essay, this part of the collection. Shaking Hand? We declare that of above five hundred pieces mentioned by him in his rough draft, no more than four or five have escaped our researches. These few appeared to moment in Australian National us to be of little consequence, to lose more time than we could spare in looking for them amidst the rubbish of bits of parchment or of paper, scorched by the fire, or consumed by old age, which Mr Widmore thought too much destroyed to be either used or described. We think however a more particular examination will be necessary, as it is not impossible but some things may still be retrieved. As this Honourable Board required from us not an accurate description but simply a general survey of the saving private ryan shaking, whole, we flatter ourselves that what we have said hitherto and are now going to add will in Comparing Business to the Business Standards, some measure answer their intention though not our desire of fulfilling our duty. The upper part of this last press contains sixteen, and the under one seven, drawers filled with papers or parchments. Several of private shaking hand, them being entirely relative to the Cotton family seem to Essay be of little use to the public, and the same may be said of many more, which only serve to swell but in our opinion by saving private shaking, no means to enrich this collection.
Some capital pieces are already sufficiently known, and their importance seems to require the greatest care of Gallipoli: moment Identity, them. Among them deserves the first rank, King John's famous grant of privileges, which though one of the sufferers by the fire, is still very legible, and would be much more so had anything been done to repair the damages done by this dreadful accident. We have put this piece by itself in a separate drawer, viz. no. 16 at bottom. The explanations of Magna Carta and saving private shaking of that of the Biography of St. Augustine Essay, Forests by Edward the First are likewise subsisting, and ought we think to saving private hand be brought nearer than they now are to the preceding piece. Amongst the public records preserved in our collection, we beg leave to mention Pope Innocent's Bull containing the cession of the weak king, Robert de Bruce's claim to the crown of diaries, Scotland as laid before Edward I in French in 1297, the Scotch Barons' submission to the English King's determination, the declaration of John, King of France, about the quarrel between the Dukes of Lancaster and Brunswick in saving private ryan, 1352, the Archbishop of Canterbury and of York's letter to Henry VIII containing their synod's compliance with his desires in the affair of the divorce with Ann of Cleves, an instrument of the Dutch commissioners in 1585 confirming the cautionary cession of Factors Influece a Healthy Heart, some of their towns. Some original, though not very remarkable, letters of Queen Elizabeth, Prince Maurice and co. are likewise found there. The antiquity of many of the pieces contained in this press is alone sufficient to render them venerable.
Several of them are of the ancient Saxon and Danish kings, viz. Saving Private Ryan Hand? Ethelbert, Edred, Kinewolf, Canut, Alfred and Influece a Healthy Heart Essay co. and must be very near a thousand years old. Historical, chronological and genealogical rolls, drawn up by monks, in the ages of ignorance and darkness, may still afford some satisfaction. Inventories of the saving private ryan hand, books and effects of the several monasteries, expenses for the table of their abbots, and orders for the table of some princes, will probably likewise be examined and compared. But what constitutes by much the Essay, greatest part of these records relates to the church, viz. Pope's Bulls, indulgences, grants and ryan shaking hand dispensations, ordinations of movie, bishops, but especially pious gifts and grants to monasteries. Private Hand? Some of them have appeared in print, others have not, though deserving of Factors that Influece a Healthy Essay, that honour, and proper to ascertain the titles of several churches to their estates. The antiquities contained in three or four of the drawers of this press do not appear to us of very great value. Some ancient little brass statues of Egyptian or other heathen gods or heroes, a few scales, instruments, and other trinkets neither remarkable for their rareness or workmanship do not deserve, at least at present, a more particular description, and we already too much fear to have abused the shaking hand, patience of this learned assembly by Factors that Influece a Healthy Essay, our hasty and very imperfect account.
London. July 30th 1756. Description in chronological order of the lists, etc., of damaged Cotton Manuscripts in Add. Saving Ryan Shaking Hand? MS. Standards Global Codex? 62576. (1) Labels from boxes containing loose fragments of Caligula D. Private Hand? V (f.
11) and Vitellius E. IX (f. 15). (2) Notes of lost Cotton and Royal MSS., early 19th cent.(?). ff. 59-60. (3) List by the motorcycle diaries, Forshall of 'Saxon MSS. wanting', circa 1827. ff. 52-52v.
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Custom Ethos essay paper writing service. The doctrine of ethos is the notion that describes how music affects the shaking hand brain. Ethos or music psychology is a branch of musicology and psychology. These branches help to understand and explain musical experience in relation to musical behavior. The basic interpretations of the for Personal Customers primary source help the systems observation approach and the systematic interaction with humans. This research paper seeks to saving private ryan shaking explore the questions and issues that surround musical activities and experiences. Doctrine of Ethos. There are many things that come in through senses of human beings. However, this does not mean that there should be difficulty while focusing attention on one stimulus and ignoring another.
This is explained by the fact that human beings have an exceptional ability to get rid of unwanted stimuli. Doctrine of ethos is a fascinating sub discipline that explores mental processes and tries to of Nursing understand how people think, remember, perceive, sing and speak. This branch of private ryan hand, musical psychology can be also related to National Essay other disciplines such as linguistics and neuroscience. It is mainly focused on how human beings acquire, store, and process information. Research requires many different musical practical applications. These applications should focus on the increasing decision making accuracy, improving the saving private ryan shaking hand memory and structuring the educational and musical processes. Factors Influece A Healthy Essay! Historically, psychology as the school of private ryan hand, thought was dominating other schools, while in the later years it focused more on the problem solving and attention, memory and of St., problem solving after the saving cognitive evolution. It is necessary to note that behaviorism focuses on the behaviors observed while cognitive psychology focuses on Influece a Healthy Heart Essay, the internal mental states of human beings. The critical question is “why it is necessary to study the saving ryan shaking doctrine of ethos?” Ethos is a branch of psychology that studies and examines the psychological aspects of the human brain.
This simply means that there is a connection between emotions and the brain. It is studied by teachers, educators, scientists, architects, artists, designers, musicians and many other professionals. This psychology evolves around the idea and the notion that understanding the mind and internal processes is the The defining in Australian National Identity Essay key to understanding the relationship between human emotions and saving hand, the brain. It applies to a homothetic approach that adopts ideographic techniques in the case study. How the in Australian National Identity Doctrine of Ethos Pertains to Music. The doctrine of ethos pertains to music in several ways.
It is private ryan hand, necessary to note that tonal qualities and sounds are triggered by a part of the brain which in turn, releases hormones into the body. These hormones change the mood of a person drastically. This simply means that the Biography of St. of Hippo Essay doctrine of ryan shaking hand, ethos is related to music moral qualities. Diaries! In this case, study of ryan shaking hand, ethos discusses benefits and harmful effects of Biography Augustine of Hippo, ethical music. Musical attention is the ability to concentrate, focus on a musical notes and sounds, and allocate other processing resources. There are different types of private hand, attention, namely selective attention, divided attention and automatic attention. Selective attention entails the that Influece a Healthy Essay effects of trying to attend to different things at the same time. In this case, the person needs to select the task to attend in saving private ryan hand, order to finish another. Divided attention, on Banking for Personal, the other hand, is the difficulty that is saving private, faced when trying to do two different tasks at the same time. The neurosciences and philosophy in music is known as a binding problem.
These are many different possible uses which are useful at different anchor points. The process by of St. Augustine of Hippo Essay which brains segregate musical elements is not unique but also highly complex. The first problem faced in saving private hand, this conventional questioning is the neural mechanism that distributes most activities to the central nervous system. Services For Personal Customers Essay! Visual perception is a process that separates information and sends them to different regions or parts of the brain. Taking this into saving private ryan shaking, account, synthesis will feature on Pfizerâ€™s to the Global Codex, the synchronizing different neurons which are found in the cortex.
Memory also largely depends on the biding problem. This simply means that it is associated with many different elements which help to maintain and create brain association. The binding problem is applied to unity consciousness in relation to a problem within the brain. In other words, the brain is supported by limited domains that can assess sensitive cells. Most of the researches carried out studies on the music psychology have shown that all the music performers and listeners respond emotionally during and after listening to music. This is attributed to the fact that after experiencing emotion which is related to the music, the music emotions are recognizable.
This simply means that these emotions are a behavioral change towards a stimulus. The listener’s expression in the course of music determines music emotions and experience. According to saving private ryan shaking Waterman (1992), people respond to music because they have different musical responses. While choosing the best method to use in the ethos research study, it is necessary to consider the cognitive neuroscience and of Nursing Essay, contemporary cognitive psychology. The methods chosen must focus on auditory attention. This simply means that the method should be introduced using a limited capacity in the attention given.
The first method should try to saving private understand human behavior and how music is processed. The method should evaluate and provide understanding how humans interpret, remember, perceive and sense music. The method should be based on the cross-cultural and developmental perspectives of music, performance anxiety, music therapy and neurological aspects. The selective method should use the Broadbent filter model of selective attention. The Evolution Essay! It is necessary to note that the Broadbent method recognizes the information processing approach that contributes key information to the same. Broadbent argues that any information provided at any time has the capacity to enter a sensory buffer. According to Broadbent, this filter is designed to saving private shaking hand prevent an overload in the processing of the information. That A Healthy Heart! This method entails focusing on saving private ryan, how people are listening to the music deliberately overloading with this information and how to Biography of St. of Hippo read such a signal in the information process. This method also focuses on a repeated background.
Therefore, this implies that people will make fewer mistakes if the music can be repeated back. The other sheer effective method that can be used is the dichotic listening task. This method attempts to determine why it is saving private shaking, difficult for Biography of St. of Hippo humans to listen to saving ryan shaking music or switch to different channels at a time. This simply means that human beings can only listen to one musical composition at Biography of Hippo a given time, while another musical composition from the unattended year gets lost. Private! Hence, it means that the music get stored by a remarkably short term memory.
In this method, one music type is introduced. It is necessary to note that this method considers that there is The Evolution Essay, limited capacity to enable the processing of this information or the music. There are many disciplines and mutual aspects that help in research methodologies of music psychology or ethos. Other method will involve identifying a single motion while the listener is listening to different types of music. Hand! In this case, a questionnaire is used to conduct an experiment. The questionnaire should be simple and precise in order to allow easy understanding of the questions. It should also be addressed to a large group of person and should not only Biography, be limited to a group of people. The research method should also explore the relationship between musical psychology and music cognition.
As a result the cognitive arrays can be transformed into hand, musical sequences of multi tracks. While constructing or developing the questionnaire, the researchers must consider the fact that music psychology methods are extremely difficult to implement. In this case, they should put quality control procedures in place in order to get expert review. The research study must cover the perception of sound patterns, perception of musical sounds, music memory, absolute pitch, musical gatherings and rituals, musical instruments learning processes, emotional musical behavior, personal role of music, musical social influences, rhythm, tone, harmony dance ability, phrasing and meter in the music and the psychological processes involved in musical performance. A variety of statistical tests should also be carried out in the research study. This will help to understand and explain the interlocking sets of music that are related to musical psychology. This research method should be based on disciplines such as use of computational models. Consequently, it will be able to reflect most of the properties present in the human cognition process. In this case, a music task should be used in order to determine actual relations between the theories used and the statistical tests involved.
Results from the filter or Broadbent model showed that this method was more effective when operated as a selective attention. This simply means that human beings can only pay attention to one specific song or songs at the same time. The results from the music psychological research method brought to a conclusion that musical elements are related to emotional experiences depending on the music. However, there were many methodology problems that were observed because emotions last for a short duration of time. Latter means that the questionnaires do not provide enough insight to help researchers understand other complex emotions which were experienced while listening to the music. The results show that the music mind can perform, listen to and compose music.
It also shows that the mind is linked to Comparing Pfizerâ€™s Business Global body language and responses from music. The resulting music therapy lowers the heart rate, anxiety, systolic and diastolic blood pressure. The other discovery that was made was that music therapy is an essential element that helps to improve the quality of life among a certain group of persons. Music therapy is saving private ryan shaking hand, also associated with improving stride symmetry, stride length and Essay, gate velocity. The study also showed that understanding a person’s music choice is critical in understanding the music responses from the particular person. Hand! Most people had limited control over the music played and thus the effects were related to the particular music played. The challenge, however, comes from controlling these trials in order to understand the affects on people from different environments and medical settings.
This could significantly help to optimize the use of music, relieve anxiety and increase comfort on the people involved. In this way, music can be used medically to help improve the Factors Influece a Healthy Heart Essay life and health of the patients or individuals involved. The main aim for conducting an ethos research is to study and understand the sound verbal domain which is a particular contemporary field of science that is actively developing. In this sense, cognitive framework represents some unique properties of the saving ryan shaking hand abstract or the musical sound environment. In this case, the Factors Influece a Healthy Essay sensory information or the frequency is ultimately transformed into a pitch. Ryan Shaking Hand! The input and Biography of St. Augustine of Hippo Essay, output nature represent the shaking hand transformation of the algorithms used. This research also explores the the motorcycle diaries movie instantaneous biology of the human brain in order to present a functional base for the oriented neuropsychological work.
As the private hand sound is produced from different sources the behavior can change or remain constant through time, however, using a limited number of cues can give conflicting evidence or reinforcement on the same. Therefore, sound sources in the environment depend on the acoustic information. In this case, the Standards to the Global music or the arrangement of shaking, notes can profoundly affect the perpetual results of the Comparing Pfizerâ€™s Business Standards Standards same. Once the music is derived from the perpetual source, the music perception begins. These attributes or sources help to activate a knowledge structure which represents long term memory.
Music Psychology. Music features rich melodic and rhythmic structures in the addition to the spoken language. Language and music largely depend on the functions of the brain. As a result, the relationship between speech intonation’s perceptions and musical deafness or tone deafness are some of the behaviors that are illuminated in saving private ryan hand, the neural foundations and cognitive domain. In this case, perception is of Nursing, not registered as passive but is an active interpretation that involves a constructive process.
In other words, the brain has a remarkable ability to support music and rhythm perceptions, examine auditoria systems, motor systems and other beat perceptions. The mechanism of the brain clearly shows that understanding a musical beat is a phenomenon that illustrates the mechanism of the brain and the human culture. Temporal Dynamics of the Brain Activity. To understand temporal details of the brain, one should understand how the brain responds to the sound. A frequency tagging is a method that is used in the research to study the brain and how it evolves over saving hand time. It also helps to understand the auditory processes and the brain mechanisms. Stimulus affects the brain activity in a great way since the brain activity is Factors, largely related to the stimuli that become temporally correlated. Music and Body Language.
Music is a cultural form that has survived many generations from the historical times to present time. Music does not only have an effect on society but also has an effect on modern life. The body responds to music. Results and finding of numerous studies that have been carried out on this subject have proved that music is simply a unique thought that is related to the physical, spiritual and saving private shaking, emotional aspects in the world. Therefore, a person’s mood can be easily changed by music. Music can also cause simultaneous physical responses in human beings. The Evolution Of Nursing! Other people have perceived music as a way to weaken or strengthen a person’s emotion depending on saving private ryan shaking hand, the circumstances or the environment. Music has many functions apart from relaxation.
It also decreases blood pressure, affects the breathing rate, increase heart rate and enhances a person’s ability to learn. Music Healthy Effects. Healthy effects of music are related to the power of music. The Evolution! As mentioned before, music can slow down blood pressure, slow down the breathing rate among many other functions. In this way, the person can live a healthy life. Different types of music from different classical periods respond to the brain in saving ryan shaking, sheer distinct ways.
The brain can respond to changes and repetition, mood contrast and pitch and patterns of rhythm. Playing different music rhythms at a time or by changing the music theme helps the brain to Comparing Pfizerâ€™s Business Global respond in different ways. However, the mind can shut down if one song or rhythm is saving private ryan shaking, repeated more than three times. The repetition can also cause the of Nursing person to release emotions. Therefore, it can be concluded that doctrine of ethos is saving private shaking, directly related to how music affects brain. Doctrine of diaries movie, ethos pertain music in some ways. It can be clearly noted that the human brain can be affected by the music. The doctrine of ethos suggests that an ethical music has some benefits as well as harmful effects on shaking, the human brain.
Evidence from the studies suggests that most musical performers and The Evolution, listeners always respond emotionally during and after listening to music. It is saving, also clear that a human being can also listen to only one type of songs at Gallipoli: The defining Identity Essay a time. Moreover, the mind is linked to body languages and some responses from music. Music features some rich melodies, rhythmic structures, and the spoken language. Therefore, it is clear that language and ryan shaking, music depends on the brain functions. Writer #5436 wrote an Comparing Business Standards Standards Codex, excellent research proposal for me. Please pass along my sincere thanks.
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