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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Moral relativism is the view that moral judgments are true or false only relative to some particular standpoint (for instance, that of a culture or a historical period) and that no standpoint is uniquely privileged over all others. It has often been associated with other claims about morality: notably, the thesis that different cultures often exhibit radically different moral values; the denial that there are universal moral values shared by every human society; and the insistence that we should refrain from passing moral judgments on beliefs and practices characteristic of cultures other than our own. Relativistic views of morality first found expression in 5th century B.C.E. Tag! Greece, but they remained largely dormant until the 19th and 20th centuries. During this time, a number of factors converged to make moral relativism appear plausible. These included a new appreciation of cultural diversity prompted by anthropological discoveries; the declining importance of religion in modernized societies; an increasingly critical attitude toward colonialism and its assumption of moral superiority over the colonized societies; and growing skepticism toward any form of moral objectivism, given the difficulty of mass proving value judgments the way one proves factual claims.

For some, moral relativism, which relativizes the affinity truth of moral claims, follows logically from a broader cognitive relativism that relativizes truth in History of The Periodic Table Essay general. Many moral relativists, however, take the fact-value distinction to be fundamental. A common, albeit negative, reason for embracing moral relativism is simply the perceived untenability of moral objectivism: every attempt to establish a single, objectively valid and universally binding set of moral principles runs up against formidable objections. Affinity Tag! A more positive argument sometimes advanced in defense of moral relativism is that it promotes tolerance since it encourages us to summary of raisin understand other cultures on their own terms. Critics claim that relativists typically exaggerate the degree of tag diversity among cultures since superficial differences often mask underlying shared agreements. Periodic Table! In fact, some say that there is affinity, a core set of History of The universal values that any human culture must endorse if it is to flourish. Affinity! Moral relativists are also accused of inconsistently claiming that there are no universal moral norms while appealing to a principle of tolerance as a universal norm.

In the eyes of of raisin sun many critics, though, the most serious objection to moral relativism is that it implies the pernicious consequence that “anything goes”: slavery is just according to the norms of a slave society; sexist practices are right according to the values of a sexist culture. Without some sort of non-relative standard to appeal to, the critics argue, we have no basis for affinity tag critical moral appraisals of our own culture’s conventions, or for judging one society to be better than another. Naturally, most moral relativists typically reject the assumption that such judgments require a non-relativistic foundation. In the view of most people throughout history, moral questions have objectively correct answers. There are obvious moral truths just as there are obvious facts about the world. Cowardice is a bad quality. A man should not have sex with his mother. Heroes deserve respect. Such statements would be viewed as obviously and objectively true, no more open to dispute than the claim that seawater is salty. This assumption was first challenged in fifth century B.C.E. Greece.

The idea was that moral beliefs and practices are bound up with customs and conventions, and these vary greatly between societies. The historian Herodotus tells the Science: of The story of how the Persian king Darius asked some Greeks at his court if there was any price for affinity which they would be willing to eat their dead father’s bodies the way the Callatiae did. Othello's Tragic! The Greeks said nothing could induce them to do this. Darius then asked some Callatiae who were present if they would ever consider burning their fathers’ bodies, as was the custom among Greeks. The Callatiae were horrified at the suggestion.

Herodotus sees this story as vindicating the poet Pindar’s dictum that “custom is lord of tag all”; people’s beliefs and practices are shaped by custom, and Introducs, they typically assume that their own ways are the best. Herodotus’ anecdote is not an isolated moment of reflection on cultural diversity and tag, the conventional basis for morality. The sophists—notably Protagoras, Gorgias, and some of their followers—were also associated with relativistic thinking. As itinerant intellectuals and teachers, the sophists were cosmopolitan, impressed by and prompted to reflect upon the diversity in classes religions, political systems, laws, manners, and affinity, tastes they encountered in different societies. Protagoras, who famously asserted that “man is the measure of all things,” seems to have embraced a wholesale relativism that extended to truth of any kind, but this view was uncommon. More popular and influential was the Othello's Tragic Flaw contrast that many drew between nomos (law, custom) and physis (nature, natural order).

In Plato’s Gorgias , for affinity tag instance, Callicles, a student of Gorgias, argues that human laws and conventional notions about justice are at odds with what is right according to nature (which is that the summary of raisin sun strong should dominate the weak). This view is not truly relativism, since it asserts a certain conception of justice as objectively correct, but Callicles’ stress on the merely conventional status of ordinary morality points the way towards relativism. More radical is the affinity position advanced by the sophist Thrasymachus in Book One of Plato’s Republic when he claims that “justice is Science: Table Essay, nothing but the advantage of the affinity tag stronger.” According to one interpretation, Thrasymachus is arguing that nothing is objectively right or wrong; moral language is simply a tool used by the powerful to justify the calcium hydroxide moral and legal systems that serve their interests. This view echoes the one expressed by the Athenians in Thucydides’ “Melian Dialogue” when they dismiss the Melian’s complaint that Athenian policy toward them is unjust. So, relativistic thinking seems to have been in tag the air at the time.

Strictly speaking, it is a form of moral nihilism rather than moral relativism, but in rejecting the whole idea of objective moral truth it clears the Technology Introducs Essay ground for relativism. Even though moral relativism makes its first appearance in ancient times, it hardly flourished. Plato vigorously defended the affinity idea of an objective moral order linked to a transcendent reality while Aristotle sought to ground morality on objective facts about molar calcium human nature and well-being. A few centuries later, Sextus Empiricus appears to have embraced a form of moral relativism, partly on the basis of the diversity of tag laws and conventions, and partly as a consequence of his Pyrrhonian skepticism that sought to eschew dogmatism. Social Of Ancient! In his Outlines of Pyrrhonism , Sextus catalogues the tremendous diversity to tag be found between cultures in the laws and customs relating to such things as dress, diet, treatment of the dead, and sexual relations, and Introducs Batteries Essay, concludes: “seeing so great a diversity of practices, the skeptic suspends judgment as to the natural existence of anything good or bad, or generally to be done” (Sextus, Outlines of Pyrrhonism , 1, 14). Tag! But Hellenistic skepticism gave way to philosophy informed by Christianity, and moral relativism effectively became dormant and remained so throughout the period of History Christian hegemony in Europe. According to the monotheistic religions, God’s will represents an objective moral touchstone. Scriptural precepts such as “Thou shalt not kill” constitute absolute, universally binding, moral truths. Relativism thus ceased to be an option until the advent of modernity.

Many scholars see the affinity tag first reappearance of Science: of The Table a relativistic outlook in the writings of Montaigne, which, not coincidentally, came on affinity tag, the heels of the publication of summary Sextus’ writings in the 1560s. In “On Custom,” Montaigne compiles his own list of radically diverse mores to be found in different societies, and asserts that “the laws of conscience which we say are born of Nature are born of custom.” (Montaigne, p. 83). Tag! In his famous essay “On Cannibals,” written around 1578, Montaigne describes the lives of calcium so-called barbarians in the new world, noting their bravery in battle, the natural simplicity of their morals, and their uncomplicated social structure. “All this is not too bad,” he says, “but what’s the use? They don’t wear breeches.” The thrust of the essay is thus to criticize the ethnocentrism of the affinity “civilized” Europeans who naively think themselves morally superior to such people. Furthermore, Montaigne advances as a general thesis that “each man calls barbarism whatever is not his own practice; for indeed it seems we have no other test of truth and reason than the example and pattern of the opinions and Science: History of The, customs of the country we live in” (Montaigne, p. 152). In the centuries following, further trends in modern philosophy helped prepare the affinity way for moral relativism by chipping away at people’s faith in the objectivity of an Interior Designer ethics.

In the 17th century, Hobbes argued for a social contract view of morality that sees moral rules, like laws, as something human beings agree upon in affinity tag order to make social living possible. An implication of this view is that moral tenets are not right or wrong according to summary in the sun whether they correspond to some transcendent blueprint; rather, they should be appraised pragmatically according to how well they serve their purpose. Hume, like Montaigne, was heavily influenced by ancient skepticism, and this colors his view of morality. His argument, that prescriptions saying how we should act cannot be logically derived from factual claims about the way things are, raised doubts about the possibility of proving the correctness of any particular moral point of view. So, too, did his insistence that morality is based ultimately on tag, feelings rather than on reason. Classes China! Hume was not a relativist, but his arguments helped support elements of relativism. With the remarkable progress of tag science in the 19th and of raisin sun, 20th centuries, the fact-value distinction became entrenched in mainstream philosophy and social science.

Science came to be seen as offering value-neutral descriptions of an independently existing reality; moral claims, by contrast, came to be viewed by many as mere expressions of emotional attitudes. This view of morality suggests that all moral outlooks are on the same logical plane, with none capable of being proved correct or superior to affinity all the Othello's Flaw rest. There are relativistic tendencies in Marx’s critique of bourgeois morality as an ideology expressing certain class interests. According to affinity one interpretation, Marx holds that there is no objectively true moral system, only interest-serving ideologies that use moral language. But Marx wrote little about of raisin in the ethics, so it is hard to pin down his philosophical views about the nature of morality and the status of tag moral claims. Nietzsche, on the other hand, wrote extensively and influentially about morality. Scholars disagree about whether he should be classified as a relativist, but his thought certainly has a pronounced relativistic thrust.

His famous pronouncement that “God is dead” implies, among other things, that the idea of Tragic Flaw Essay a transcendent or objective justification for moral claims—whether it be God, Platonic Forms, or Reason—is no longer credible. And he explicitly embraces a form of perspectivism according to which “there are no moral phenomena, only moral interpretations of phenomena” ( Beyond Good and tag, Evil , 108). China! It is true that Nietzsche likes to rank moralities according to whether they are expressions of strength or weakness, health or sickness; but he does not insist that the criteria of tag rank he favors constitute an objectively privileged vantage point from which different moralities can be appraised. These philosophical ideas prepared the ground for moral relativism mainly by raising doubts about the Othello's possibility of demonstrating that any particular moral code is objectively correct. Affinity! But anthropological research in Flaw the 19th and 20th centuries also encouraged relativism. Indeed, many of its leading contemporary champions from Franz Boas to Clifford Gertz have been anthropologists. One of the first to argue at length for moral relativism was William Sumner. In his major work, Folkways , published in affinity tag 1906, Sumner argues that notions about calcium what is right and tag, wrong are bound up with a society’s mores and are shaped by its customs, practices, and institutions. To those living within that society, the of raisin in the concept of moral rightness can only mean conformity to the local mores. Affinity Tag! Sumner acknowledges that if members of a culture generalize its mores into abstract principles, they will probably regard these as correct in an absolute sense.

This may even be psychologically unavoidable. But it is mass hydroxide, not philosophically legitimate; the mores themselves cannot be an object of moral appraisal since there is no higher tribunal to which appeals can be made. The work of Franz Boas was also tremendously influential. Boas viewed cultural relativism—a commitment to understanding a society in its own terms—as methodologically essential to scientific anthropology. From an objective, scientific standpoint one may not pass moral judgment on the beliefs and practices that inhere within a culture, although one may objectively assess the extent to affinity tag which they help that society achieve its overarching goals.

Many of sun Boas’ students helped disseminate this approach, and tag, some, such as Melville Herskovits and Ruth Benedict, made more explicit its implications with respect to ethics, arguing that a relativistic outlook can help combat prejudice and Technology Lithium-Ion Batteries Essay, promote tolerance. The debate over moral relativism in modern times has thus not been an abstract discussion of interest only to professional philosophers. Affinity! It is thought to Tragic Flaw Essay have implications for the social sciences, for international relations, and for relations between communities within a society. Affinity! In 1947, the American Anthropological Association submitted a statement to the UN Commission on Human Rights criticizing what some viewed as an attempt by the West to impose its particular values on other societies in the name of universal rights. Science: Table Essay! The statement declared that: Standards and values are relative to the culture from which they derive so that any attempt to formulate postulates that grow out affinity of the beliefs or moral codes of one culture must to that extent detract from the applicability of any Declaration of of raisin Human Rights to mankind as a whole ( American Anthropologist , Vol. 49, No. 4, p. 542). It went on to assert that “man is free only when he lives as his society defines freedom” ( ibid . p. 543).

Needless to say, the statement caused some controversy since many members of the AAA did not agree with the affinity tag position it laid out. More recently, discussions of Lithium-Ion relativism have been at the center of debates about how societies with large immigrant populations should deal with the affinity problem of multiculturalism. To what extent should the practices of classes of ancient minorities be accepted, even if they seem to conflict with the values of the majority culture? In France, a law was passed in 2011 banning face veils that some Muslim women view as required by Islam. Those supporting the ban appeal to values they consider universal such as sexual equality and freedom of expression (which the face veil is said to violate since it inhibits expressive interaction). But critics of the policy see it as expressing a kind of cultural intolerance, just the affinity sort of thing that relativism claims to in the sun counter.

2. Clarifying What Moral Relativism Is (and Is Not) Defining moral relativism is difficult because different writers use the term in slightly different ways; in particular, friends and foes of relativism often diverge considerably in their characterization of it. Therefore, it is important to first distinguish between some of the positions that have been identified or closely associated with moral relativism before setting out a definition that captures the main idea its adherents seek to put forward. Descriptive relativism is affinity tag, a thesis about cultural diversity. It holds that, as a matter of fact, moral beliefs and practices vary between cultures (and sometimes between groups within a single society). For instance, some societies condemn homosexuality, others accept it; in some cultures a student who corrects a teacher would be thought disrespectful; elsewhere such behavior might be encouraged. Descriptive relativism is put forward as an empirical claim based on evidence provided by anthropological research; hence it is most strongly associated with the molar work of anthropologists such as William Sumner, Ruth Benedict and Meville Herskovits. There is affinity, a spectrum of possible versions of this thesis. In its strongest, most controversial form, it denies that there are any moral universals—norms or values that every human culture endorses. This extreme view is rarely, if ever, defended, since it seems reasonable to suppose that the affirmation of classes china certain values—for instance, a concern for the wellbeing of the young-- is necessary for affinity any society to survive. But Benedict seems to approach it when she writes of the three societies she describes in Patterns of Culture that [t]hey are oriented as wholes in different directions….traveling along different roads in pursuit of different ends and these ends and these means in one society cannot be judged in History of The Periodic Table terms of affinity tag those of another society, because essentially they are incommensurable ( Patterns of Culture, p. 206).

In its weakest, least controversial form, descriptive relativism merely denies that all cultures share the same moral outlook. A well-known version of this has been defended by Technology Introducs Lithium-Ion Essay David Wong, who describes his position as “pluralistic relativism.” The somewhat simple form of descriptive relativism, which takes any differences between the affinity moral beliefs or practices of on The Job of two cultures as evidence of a difference in moral outlooks, has been heavily criticized both by social scientists such as Solomon Asch and by philosophers such as Michele Moody-Adams. Affinity Tag! One objection is summary of raisin in the sun, that it is difficult to affinity establish the relativist’s claims about moral diversity in an evaluatively neutral way; for the empirical researcher who asserts that a particular moral belief is representative of a culture will have to grant the opinions of some members of molar mass calcium that culture authoritative status while ignoring or glossing over internal conflicts and ongoing cultural changes. Another objection is that many apparent moral differences between cultures are not really fundamental disagreements about questions of value—that is, disagreements that would persist even if both parties were in affinity tag full agreement about all the pertinent facts. Of Ancient China! For instance, the taboo against homosexuality in some cultures may rest on the belief that homosexuality is a sin against affinity God that will result in Tragic Flaw Essay the sinner suffering eternal damnation. The point of conflict between these cultures and those that tolerate homosexuality may thus be viewed as being, fundamentally, not about the intrinsic rightness or wrongness of homosexuality but the different factual beliefs they hold concerning the consequences of homosexuality. In light of such difficulties, contemporary defenders of descriptive relativism usually prefer a fairly modest, tempered version of the tag doctrine.

Wong, for instance, holds that human nature and the human condition set limits to how much moral systems could diverge while still counting as true moralities; but he argues that the experience of “moral ambivalence”—which occurs when one disagrees with another person’s moral views yet recognizes that their position is Essay, reasonable—is nevertheless common and usually arises when the tag parties put shared values in a different order of priority. Cultural relativism asserts that the Science: of The Periodic Table Essay beliefs and practices of human beings are best understood by grasping them in relation to the cultural context in which they occur. It was originally put forward as, and remains today, a basic methodological principle of tag modern anthropology. It was championed by anthropologists like Sumner and Boas who saw it as an antidote of the unconscious ethnocentrism that may lead social scientists to misunderstand the Essay phenomena they are observing. Affinity! For instance, ritualistic infliction of pain may look, on Science: History, the surface, like a punishment aimed at deterring others from wrongdoing; but it may in fact be viewed by those involved in the practice as serving a quite different function, such as purging the community of an impurity. Ironically, an extension of this argument in favor of the view that what appears on affinity tag, the surface to be similar acts can have different “situational meanings” has been used as an objection to descriptive relativism. Thus, Gestalt psychologist Karl Duncker, argued that the action by an Eskimo of killing his aged parent, where this is socially sanctioned as a way to spare their suffering, is on The Job of an Interior Designer, not the tag same act as the killing of a parent in a society where such an action would generally be condemned as murder.

Since the meaning of each act differs, we should not infer that the values of the two societies are necessarily in Job of an Interior conflict. The term cultural relativism is sometimes also used to denote the corollary methodological principle that social scientists, if they wish their work to have scientific status, should describe and affinity, analyze what goes on in the cultures they are studying, carefully eschewing any normative appraisal of Technology Batteries Essay what they observe. Ethical non-realism is the view that there is tag, no objective moral order that makes our moral beliefs true or false and Periodic Table Essay, our actions right or wrong. The term “objective” employed here is notoriously difficult to affinity tag explicate; it means something like “independent of human desires, perceptions, beliefs and practices” (although the meaning of the term “independent” is equally hard to pin down). According to social classes china an ethical realist, a sentence like “slavery is wrong” is true or false regardless of the speaker’s state of mind or the norms prevailing in his or her community. This is the view held by affinity tag most philosophers in the Western canon from Plato and Aristotle to Kant, Mill, and G. E. Moore.

It continues to be widely held, and Othello's Tragic Flaw Essay, leading contemporary defenders of ethical realism include Thomas Nagel, John McDowell, and Richard Boyd. Ethical non-realists obviously reject ethical realism, but not all for affinity tag the same reasons; consequently there are several types of ethical non-realism. The most head-on rejection of ethical realism is perhaps the sort of moral error theory defended by J. Lithium-Ion Essay! L. Mackie. He argues that all moral claims are, strictly speaking, false since they posit properties (for example, goodness, wrongness, fairness) that are “ontologically queer” in being quite unlike any of the properties of things that we can perceive by normal empirical means. In the absence of any special faculty for affinity detecting such properties, and therefore of any real evidence for Othello's Flaw Essay their existence, we should conclude that they don’t exist; hence all statements that assert or presuppose that they exist are false. A skeptical attitude toward moral realism can be more tentative than this. Hume is often interpreted as a moral skeptic who denies the possibility of proving by reason or by empirical evidence the truth of moral statements since our moral views rest entirely on our feelings. More recently, Michael Ruse, has defended an updated version of Hume, arguing that we are conditioned by affinity evolution to hold fast to certain moral beliefs, regardless of the calcium hydroxide evidence for or against them; consequently, we should not view such beliefs as rationally justified. Affinity! And Walter Sinnott-Armstrong has shown how difficult it is to refute moral skepticism, especially the sort of Science: History Periodic Table Essay non-dogmatic Pyrrhonian skepticism which holds that one may be justified within a restricted context in affirming a certain moral belief—for instance, in court it is tag, wrong to Technology Introducs Essay lie as opposed to telling the affinity truth—yet not be able to justify the claim that lying, or even perjury, is social classes china, wrong in some absolute, objective sense.

Ethical non-realism is typically presupposed by moral relativists, but it is not the whole of affinity tag moral relativism. Clearly, no one who believes in the absolute authority of divine law or the intrinsic value of a rational will would be likely to embrace relativism. But merely denying that morality has an History Periodic Table Essay, objective foundation of this sort does not make one a relativist; for moral relativism also asserts that moral claims may be true or false relative to some particular standpoint such as that of a specific culture or historical period. Ethical non-cognitivism is the affinity tag view that moral judgments are neither true nor false since they are not “truth-apt,” meaning they are not the kind of utterances that can have a truth-value. In this respect they are like questions or commands rather than like indicative sentences such as “Grass is green.” The most common kinds of ethical non-cognitivism in the twentieth century are forms of Technology Introducs Batteries expressivism which view moral statements as expressions of evaluative attitudes. Affinity! An especially influential version of Technology Introducs Batteries this view, first put forward by affinity Ogden and Richards, and later elaborated upon by A.J. Science: Of The Periodic Table Essay! Ayer and C.L.

Stevenson, is emotivism. According to emotivism, moral judgments express the affinity speaker’s feelings towards the Periodic Table thing being judged. So, saying “Nelson Mandela is a good man” expresses approval of Mandela; it is like saying “Hurrah for Mandela!” Other forms of ethical non-cognitivism have built on this idea. Prescriptivism, for instance, the view developed by affinity R. M. Hare, acknowledges that moral statements can express emotional attitudes but sees their primary function as that of prescribing how people should behave. Thus, “stealing is wrong” is summary of raisin, a way of affinity tag saying “Don’t steal!” More recent versions of Introducs Lithium-Ion expressivism however, such as Simon Blackburn’s “quasi-realism,” hold that while moral claims are not, strictly speaking, true or false, we are justified in tag treating them as if they are, both in our ethical reasoning and in our practice. Most forms of ethical non-cognitivism, like moral relativism, have been fueled by acceptance of a fact-value gap. Summary Of Raisin In The! But unlike ethical non-cognitivism, moral relativism does not deny that moral claims can be true; it only denies that they can be made true by affinity tag some objective, trans-cultural moral order. It allows them to be true in the humbler, relativistic sense of being rationally acceptable from a particular cultural vantage point. Meta-ethical relativism holds that moral judgments are not true or false in any absolute sense, but only relative to particular standpoints. This idea is essential to just about any version of moral relativism.

Relativizing truth to Science: standpoints is a way of affinity answering in advance the objection that relativism implies that the same sentence can be both true and false. Technology Introducs Essay! The relativity clause means that the tag same sentence—say, “slavery is unjust”—can be both true and false, but not in exactly the same sense, since the term “unjust” contains an implicit reference to some particular normative framework. The situation is analogous to that in which one person says “It is raining” and another person says “It is not raining.” If they are standing together at the same place and at the same time, they cannot both be right. But if they are speaking at different times or from different locations (standpoints) this is possible. Saying that the truth of History Table a moral claim is relative to some standpoint should not be confused with the idea that it is relative to the situation in which it is tag, made.

Only the most extreme rigorists would deny that in assessing a moral judgment we should take the particular circumstances into account. Most people would agree that lying in court to avoid a fine is social classes of ancient china, wrong, while lying to a madman to protect his intended victim is tag, justified. The particular circumstances surrounding the action alter its character and Introducs, hence our appraisal of it. Some meta-ethical relativists focus more on the justification of moral judgments rather than on their truth. Gilbert Harman, for instance, argues that when we say someone ought to do something, we imply that she has a “motivating reason”—that is, certain desires and intentions--to perform the act in question. But whether or not the person has these desires and affinity, intentions, and hence feels obliged to perform the action, is largely determined by the prevailing norms of the community to which she belongs. Feelings of History Table moral obligation provide a justification for particular beliefs and practices; but these only arise through agents being embedded in particular social groups whose moral outlook they share. Most moral relativists endorse some version of affinity tag meta-ethical relativism.

But meta-ethical relativism is social classes of ancient, not quite fully-fledged moral relativism; for one could consistently affirm it and still insist that one particular standpoint was demonstrably superior to tag all others. It is the denial of Othello's Tragic Essay this possibility that gives moral relativism a more radical edge and is responsible for affinity tag much of the criticism it attracts. Normative relativism is the view that it is wrong to judge or interfere with the moral beliefs and Essay Job of, practices of cultures that operate with a different moral framework to one’s own, that what goes on in a society should only affinity be judged by the norms of that society. It is a prescriptive position adopted initially by many anthropologists reacting against the ethnocentrism characteristic of the colonial era. Melvelle Herskovits, for instance, affirms that “… in practice, the philosophy of relativism is a philosophy of tolerance” ( Cultural Relativism , p. 31). Similar claims can be found in the writings of Ruth Benedict and Edvard Westermarck. Because it is prescriptive, many would say that what is being described here is not really a form of relativism but is, rather, a position entailed by moral relativism. The motive behind it is to social classes of ancient avoid arrogance and promote tolerance. But normative relativists can also argue that judging other cultures is misguided since there are no trans-cultural criteria to which one can refer in order to justify one’s judgment.

Whether or not meta-ethical relativism entails normative relativism is a major bone of contention. Bernard Williams disparages with the label “vulgar relativism” the sort of thinking that simplistically infers tolerance from relativity. Geoffrey Harrison argues that while moral relativism, properly understood, is essentially a meta-ethical position about morality, the claim that we should be tolerant is one made from within a particular moral point of view; the latter does not follow the former, therefore, since they belong to different levels of affinity discourse. And David Wong, while defending both meta-ethical and normative relativism, agrees that the former does not, by itself, entail the latter, some sort of independent principle of liberal political theory being also needed to Lithium-Ion Essay support a non-interventionist position. Moral relativism has been identified with all the above positions; and no formula can capture all the ways the tag term is summary of raisin, used by tag both its advocates and of ancient, its critics.

But it is possible to articulate a position that most who call themselves moral relativists would endorse. 1. Moral judgments are true or false and actions are right or wrong only relative to some particular standpoint (usually the moral framework of a specific community). 2. No standpoint can be proved objectively superior to affinity tag any other. According to this view, “slavery is unjust” is true relative to the moral framework of most 21st century Norwegians, but it is false relative to on The Job of an Interior Designer the moral perspective of most white Americans in South Carolina in the 18th century. Regarding the affinity second clause in the definition, moral philosophers from the time of Plato have sought to demonstrate the objective correctness (and hence the superiority) of a given moral outlook by showing how it conforms to God’s will, or corresponds to a metaphysical moral order, or is entailed by dictates of Reason, or accords with basic intuitions, or best meets the needs of human nature. According to the moral relativist, all such attempts fail, for Science: History of The they all rest on premises that belong to the standpoint being defended and need not be accepted by people who do not share that point of view. Thus, a critic of slavery could no doubt prove the tag truth of of raisin in the sun what she says to anyone who accepts her basic premises—for example, that all races are equally human, and that all human beings should enjoy the affinity same basic rights. But the Science: History Periodic Table Essay argument will not convince someone who denies these premises. Affinity Tag! To them, such a “proof” of slavery’s wrongness will appear question begging, and they can reject it without being inconsistent or irrational.

The fact that one moral outlook cannot be conclusively proved superior to another does not mean, however, that it cannot be judged superior; nor does it imply that one cannot give reasons for preferring it. Gilbert Harman, for instance, holds that he can consistently affirm basic tenets of liberal morality while recognizing that his reasons for doing so may not be “motivating reasons” to someone belonging to a different moral culture, and so will have no persuasive power. History Periodic Essay! A moderate moral relativist like David Wong argues that some moralities are better than others on the grounds that they better serve the needs and purposes that people in tag all cultures share. Summary Of Raisin Sun! But within the affinity parameters imposed by the common human condition, significant variation in moral outlook is possible. For instance, between the individualistic ways of thinking that are characteristic of the modern West and the community-centered outlooks more typical of Othello's Flaw Asia—to take an example Wong considers in depth—one can express a preference, but one cannot justify it by appealing to neutral criteria of superiority. Affinity! Thomas Scanlon, an History of The Periodic Table, even milder kind of relativist, also defends the idea that one can view another society’s moral norms as worthy of affinity respect while still having cogent reasons for preferring one’s own. Moral relativists typically relativize the truth of moral judgments to cultures, which may encompass an entire society or historical period (China, Victorian England) but can also designate a subculture within a society (the Pennsylvania Amish, urban street gangs). In principle, the standpoint in question could be narrowed to that of a single individual, in which case, the social classes relativism becomes a form of moral subjectivism. But this is not a widely held position since it seems to reduce to the idea that whatever an individual believes to affinity be right is right, and that would seem to undermine the whole idea of morality.

The main arguments for moral relativism are not necessarily all compatible. For instance, some relativists presuppose that value judgments are fundamentally different from in the sun, factual judgments (which can be objectively true), while others see the truth of both kinds of judgment as irreducibly relative to some conceptual or cultural framework. The arguments given here thus represent different routes by which one may arrive at a relativistic view of morality. a. The Argument from Cultural Diversity. Textbooks often suggest that relativists argue from the plain fact that different cultures have different moral belief systems to a relativistic view of affinity morality; but this is an oversimplification.

The path seems to be more along the following lines. Awareness of the existence of diverse moralities (a) casts doubt on calcium, the idea that there is a single true morality, and (b) encourages the idea that the affinity tag morality of one’s own culture has no special status but is just one moral system among many. The fact of diversity—if it is of raisin, a fact, which some question (see section 4a below)—does not logically entail moral relativism. It does not even entail that objectivism is false. After all, there are diverse views on how human beings came to affinity exist, but that does not imply that there is no single, objectively correct account.

Nor can moral relativism really claim to explain the diversity of moral systems, although this claim is sometimes made on its behalf. Summary In The Sun! For how can the mere absence of something—in this case, an objective and universally binding moral code— explain the phenomenon in question? The suggestion seems to rest on the premise that if there were an objective moral truth, there would not be such moral diversity. Presumably, the idea underlying this premise is that cultures would have by now converged on the objective moral truth. But the affinity absence of an objective truth does not explain this lack of convergence. At most, it is merely a condition that makes diversity more likely. Cultures have different sporting preferences: Brazilians love soccer; Pakistanis prefer cricket; Mongolians are passionate about Essay an Interior horse racing.

But no one would suggest that these differences are explained by the absence of a single, objectively superior game that everyone should play. To be sure, an objectivist has to explain why so many people seem to have failed to discover the one true moral code, while relativists are excused from this task. Affinity! But explanations referencing the sun usual suspects—ignorance, habit, tradition, unreason, fear, self-interest, and so on—are possible. Thus, diversity by itself proves very little. Relativists nevertheless see it as suggestive, often pointing to an analogy between moralities and religions. The existence of many different religions does not prove that none of them can claim to be the one true religion. But it obviously does raise the question of how the objective truth of any religion could possibly be demonstrated. And in affinity the case of moralities, too, the question arises: how is it possible to prove that one is superior to mass calcium all the others?

b. The Untenability of Moral Objectivism. The untenability of affinity moral objectivism is probably the most popular and persuasive justification for moral relativism--that it follows from the calcium hydroxide collapse of moral objectivism, or is at least the best alternative to affinity tag objectivism. Essay! The argument obviously rests on the idea that moral objectivism has been discredited. In its oldest and most widespread form, the idea that a moral code has objective validity rests on the belief that it has some sort of divine sanction. Tag! With the decline in religious faith that is a hallmark of Essay on The an Interior modernity, this foundation for morality was shaken.

Consequently, much moral philosophy from the 17th century onwards has been devoted to establishing an alternative, secular foundation, one that can claim universal validity without appealing to dubious metaphysical doctrines. Affinity Tag! This is what Alasdair MacIntyre has dubbed the “enlightenment project.” But despite the efforts of Kant, Mill, and their successors, many remain skeptical about the possibility of Job of proving the tag objective truth or the universal validity of moral claims. The fact that the moral objectivists themselves cannot agree about which moral system is correct, or what its philosophical foundation should be, encourages this skepticism. But it also rests on forceful philosophical considerations. Moral judgments, say the critics of objectivism, have an irreducible evaluative component. They assert, assume, or imply that a state of affairs is good or bad, that an action is social classes, right or wrong, or that something is better than something else. But if one accepts—as many do—that value judgments are logically distinct from factual statements and affinity tag, cannot be derived from Lithium-Ion, them, then any attempt to justify a moral claim must rest on at least some value-laden premises. And these basic moral presuppositions will not be susceptible to tag proof at all. For example, an argument to prove that a husband should not beat his wife will probably rest on the assumption that men and women should enjoy equal rights.

But how does one prove this to someone who categorically denies it? How does one prove that the intrinsic value of happiness should be the foundation of Othello's Flaw our moral judgments to someone who thinks that family honor is the most important value of all? Or how does one prove that individual rights are a primary good to someone whose theoretical bottom line is that individuals should be subservient to the state? The increase in skepticism towards moral objectivism is one of the most significant shifts that has taken place in moral philosophy over affinity tag, the past two centuries. This trend has been reinforced by the apparent contrast between natural science and moral discourse. Of Raisin Sun! Science is affinity, generally thought to describe an independently existing, objective reality; and scientists from all over the world largely accept the same methodology, data, theories and conclusions, except in the case of disputes at the cutting edge of research. Ethics exhibits nothing like this degree of convergence. Gilbert Harman is one of the best-known defenders of moral relativism along these lines. Essay! But other critics of objectivism, such as Alasdair MacIntrye and Richard Rorty, have carved out relativistic positions that don’t rest on acceptance of a sharp distinction between facts and values. Moral relativism is not the only response to the perceived problems with moral objectivism.

As noted earlier, ethical non-realism, ethical non-cognitivism, emotivism, moral subjectivism, and moral skepticism are other possible responses, for the mere denial of objectivism, like the mere fact of cultural diversity, does not logically entail moral relativism. It does, however, undoubtedly make people more receptive to a relativistic outlook. c. Affinity! The Argument from Cognitive Relativism. The majority of moral relativists do not embrace cognitive relativism, which offers a relativistic account of truth in general, not just the truth of moral judgments. However, some do, and this is another path to moral relativism. One of the merits of this approach to moral relativism is that it can help to clarify fundamental questions about what is meant by talk about the relativity of moral claims. Science: History Of The Periodic Table Essay! What does it mean, after all, to say that moral norms are “relative to” some culture? If we are merely saying that what people think about right and wrong is affinity tag, influenced by the cultural environment, then the claim seems banal. If we are saying that moral beliefs and practices are causally determined by Science: History Periodic Table Essay the surrounding culture, then unless one is a strict determinist, the thesis seems to be obviously false; for affinity members raised in the same cultural community can adopt very different moral outlooks. The philosophically interesting claim at Technology Introducs Lithium-Ion Batteries Essay the heart of most forms of moral relativism is that moral statements are true (or false) relative to some normative standpoint, usually one characteristic of some particular culture.

But what does “true relative to” mean, precisely? From an objectivist or realist point of view, the phrase makes little sense since what determines the truth or falsity of a statement is whether or not it accords with objective reality. The cognitive relativist, however, argues that this notion of truth is philosophically vacuous since it employs the notion of an independent, objective reality that lies beyond any possible experience. Cognitive relativism holds that (a) the truth value of any judgment is relative to some particular standpoint (for example, a conceptual scheme or theoretical framework); and (b) no standpoint is affinity, metaphysically privileged over Introducs Lithium-Ion Batteries Essay, all others—there is no “God’s eye point of view” that yields the objective truth about reality. Relativists of this sort are not so impressed by the fact-value distinction. They do not view truth as a property that sentences possess in virtue of tag their correspondence to an independent reality. Rather, they argue that we call a sentence “true” when it coheres with the rest of Tragic our beliefs, perceptions, values, and assumptions—in other words, when it is rationally acceptable or appears justified according to our general conceptual scheme. On this view, “the earth moves around the affinity tag sun” is Technology Lithium-Ion Essay, false relative to a medieval conceptual scheme and affinity tag, is true relative to ours. Classes Of Ancient! Similarly, “homosexuality is affinity, morally wrong” is true relative to the perspective of conservative Christians and false relative to that of twenty-first century liberals.

There is no essential difference between the two cases. And in both cases, it is not possible to demonstrate logically the superiority of one standpoint over of ancient china, the other. This is affinity, more or less the position defended by in the sun Richard Rorty, even though he rejects the relativist label. Rorty likes to affinity describe himself as following in classes of ancient the footsteps of William James and John Dewey, although his interpretation of his pragmatist predecessors is controversial. According to tag him, the term “true” is an “empty compliment” we pay to statements that we consider sufficiently well supported by the network of other assumptions, beliefs, and on The, experiences that surround them. d. Moral Relativism Promotes Tolerance. The idea that moral relativism promotes tolerance is a normative argument. The key idea is that moral relativism encourages a certain humility. Becoming aware of the merely relative validity of one’s own moral norms makes one less likely to tag fall into arrogant ethnocentrism and less inclined to pass moral judgment on the beliefs and practices found in other cultures.

In effect, the argument is that moral relativism entails normative relativism (see above). Ruth Benedict states the idea forcefully at the end of hydroxide her influential work Patterns of Culture , when she expresses her hope that, on the basis of the affinity tag sort of anthropological research she has described, “we shall arrive at a more realistic social faith, accepting as grounds of hope and as new bases for tolerance the coexisting and equally valid patterns of life which mankind has created for itself from the raw materials of existence ( Patterns of Culture , p. 257). Benedict, in fact, takes the argument a step further, arguing that the relativistic outlook she champions can be positively beneficial in helping to combat bigotry, racism, chauvinism and other forms of prejudice. One reason for thinking that a relativistic view of Essay morality might foster tolerance is tag, that it will also incline us to be more self-critical. Edvard Westermarck makes this connection in his 1932 work Ethical Relativity when he says, “Could it be brought home to people that there is in the, no absolute standard in morality, they would perhaps be on the one hand more tolerant and on the other more critical in their judgments” ( Ethical Relativity , p. 59). As mentioned earlier, however, even some thinkers sympathetic to affinity relativism, such as Harrison and Wong, are suspicious of the claim that moral relativism by Othello's Flaw itself necessarily entails a tolerant attitude toward alternative moralities. And critics of relativism, such as W.T. Stace and Karl Popper, argue that if relativism does indeed imply universal tolerance, that this constitutes an affinity, objection to it, since some things—like oppressively intolerant moral systems—should not be tolerated (see section 4g below). a. Relativists Exaggerate Cultural Diversity. The objection that relativists exaggerate cultural diversity is mass calcium hydroxide, directed against descriptive relativism more than against moral relativism as defined above; but it has figured importantly in many debates about relativism.

In its simplest form, the argument runs as follows. Every human culture has some sort of affinity moral code, and these overlap to Introducs a considerable extent. There is a common core of shared values such as trustworthiness, friendship, and courage, along with certain prohibitions, such as those against affinity tag murder or incest. Some version of the golden rule—treat others as you would have them treat you—is also encountered in almost every society. The existence of these universal values is easy to explain: they enable societies to Introducs Essay flourish, and affinity tag, their absence would jeopardize a society’s chances of survival. The claim that every society must share these basic commitments thus links up with findings in Periodic Table evolutionary ethics. Affinity! It is also supported, according to some, by Technology Introducs Lithium-Ion Batteries the results of the “moral sense test,” a research project conducted by Harvard’s Primate and Cognitive Neuroscience Laboratory.

The project is an internet-based study of the moral intuitions of people from all over the world. The responses are sufficiently uniform, according to the laboratory’s director, Mark Hauser, to support the tag idea that there is a “universally shared moral faculty” common to all human beings and summary of raisin, rooted in our evolutionary heritage. Such universalist claims are sometimes cited by those seeking to establish a generally agreed upon set of human rights or human capacities, a foundation for the work of organizations and tag, bodies like the United Nations. The argument that relativists exaggerate the diversity among moral systems is summary in the, also advanced in a subtler form, an early version of which can be found in the Dialogue that Hume appended to his Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Morals . What appear to be striking differences in affinity moral outlook turn out, on closer examination, to be superficial disagreements masking underlying common values. For example, some nomadic cultures have considered infanticide to be morally acceptable, while in other societies it is of ancient china, viewed as murder. But those carrying out infanticide may be motivated by the knowledge that they lack the resources to support the affinity tag child. Their action is thus prompted by a concern for the well being of the community, and of raisin in the sun, perhaps, also, a desire that the child be spared avoidable suffering—values that would be recognized and approved by people in other societies where, since additional children would be less of a burden, infanticide is prohibited. In this case, the affinity apparent difference in values is explained by Job of Designer the different circumstances of the societies in question.

Other seeming differences may be explained by reference to the different factual beliefs that people hold. Tag! Take the issue of slavery. Some societies have seen nothing wrong with slavery; others view it is Technology Batteries, a moral abomination. This would seem to mark a basic and serious disparity in moral perspectives. Yet both parties may subscribe to the principle that “all men are created equal.” Their disagreement may be over whether or not the people being enslaved are fully human. Affinity Tag! And defenders of of raisin in the sun slavery in affinity the United States did indeed used to argue that blacks were sub-human and could therefore legitimately be treated like animals rather than as human beings. The critics of relativism thus argue that before declaring a moral difference between cultures to be fundamental we should look carefully to see whether the Introducs Lithium-Ion Batteries Essay difference does not, at bottom, arise out of disparate living conditions or rest on conflicting factual beliefs.

The question of whether or not there are universal values has been at tag the center of many of the debates about moral relativism. Science: History Periodic! But the expression “universal values” is ambiguous, and how it is tag, understood affects the kind of mass calcium relativism that it calls into question. (i) “Universal values” can mean moral values or norms to which every culture, as a matter of fact, is committed. If there are universal values in this sense, then it is an affinity tag, objection to a strong version of descriptive relativism which sees cultural diversity as sufficiently radical to preclude any common ground that all cultures share. It is social, worth noting that descriptive relativism would also become false in the event of humanity eventually converging on a single moral outlook or of a catastrophe that wiped out all cultures except one. But neither scenario would falsify moral relativism as defined above, since it is not an empirical theory about tag anyone’s actual beliefs or practices; it is, rather, a view about the Essay status of moral judgments and tag, the limitations on how they can be supported. (ii) “Universal values” can mean moral values or norms that everyone ought to affirm. This is a normative universalism. It is likely that most who hold this view see these universal values as constitutive of an objectively correct moral point of view. Understood in this way, the position is incompatible with relativism. But the view that there are, as a matter of fact, universally shared values does not entail this normative universalism.

After all, every society might agree that homosexuality is wicked or that men should have dominion over women. It would not follow that everyone should embrace these values. b. Relativism Ignores Diversity Within a Culture. When relativists say that the Essay Job of truth of affinity tag moral claims and the rightness of actions is relative to the norms and values of the culture in which they occur, they seem to assume that members of that culture will generally agree about the moral framework which they supposedly share. This may sometimes be the case; but such homogeneous and relatively static cultures are increasingly uncommon. Today, many cultures contain sub-communities that disagree sharply on matters such as abortion, capital punishment, euthanasia, polygamy, women’s rights, gay rights, drug use, or the treatment of Tragic animals. Given that this is so, which set of norms and values are we supposed to refer to when judging a belief or practice? If the relevant norms are those of the sub-culture to which the person making the claim belongs, then the relativist position seems in danger of spiraling down toward subjectivism, since there can be many sub-cultures, and some of them can be quite small. From the other direction comes the objection that relativists tend to affinity tag ignore the extent to which cultures overlap and Othello's Tragic Flaw Essay, influence one another. These criticisms are related, as both accuse relativists of presupposing an oversimplified and outdated view of what a culture is.

This charge seems to have some purchase on affinity, the sort of relativism that treats the validity of moral claims as relative to specific identifiable cultures. It seems less damaging, though, to the kind of relativism that relates moral claims to general normative standpoints without requiring that these be identified with actual communities. c. Hydroxide! Relativism Implies that Obvious Moral Wrongs are Acceptable. The most serious objection to moral relativism is that relativism implies that obvious moral wrongs are acceptable. The objection is that if we say beliefs and tag, actions are right or wrong only relative to a specific moral standpoint, it then becomes possible to Essay on The Job of Designer justify almost anything. We are forced to abandon the affinity tag idea that some actions are just plain wrong. Nor can we justify the idea that some forms of life are obviously and uncontroversially better than others, even though almost everyone believes this.

According to the relativists, say the critics, the beliefs of slave-owners and Nazis should be deemed true and their practices right relative to their conceptual-moral frameworks; and an Interior Designer, it is not possible for anyone to prove that their views are false or morally misguided, or that there are better points of view. Affinity! To many, this is a reductio ad absurdum of moral relativism. This line of History of The Essay attack appears compelling against normative relativism, the view that what goes on within a society should only be judged by the prevailing norms of that society. If that is affinity, one’s position, then one must hold that in a culture where, say, adulterers are stoned to History of The Periodic Essay death, this practice is morally right, since it is justified according to the only norms that matter— those of the society in question. The argument is tag, less persuasive, however, against the position identified as “moral relativism” in section 2 above, since this version of relativism allows the beliefs and practices within a culture to be judged according to norms external to of ancient china that culture. With this view, stoning adulterers is right relative to some moral standpoints (for instance, that of affinity tag ancient Israel) and wrong according to others (for instance, that of modern liberalism). So relativists who happen to be liberal-minded denizens of the modern world are still free to judge what goes on elsewhere by their own moral norms. What makes their position relativistic is their denial that there is any neutral, transcultural court of appeal to an Interior provide an objective justification for preferring one standpoint over another. To many critics, however, this denial is precisely what renders relativism unacceptable. In their view, both versions of tag relativism put all moralities on the same plane and make one’s choice between them arbitrary. Introducs Lithium-Ion Essay! In responding to this criticism, moral relativists would seem to have three options.

(i) Assert that all moralities are indeed on the same plane and we have no reasons for favoring some over others. However, virtually no one takes this position since it amounts to affinity a form of moral nihilism. (ii) Argue that the Science: History Essay beliefs and affinity tag, practices of a culture should be appraised according to how well they enable that culture to realize the goals it sets for itself. In The! This allows for an assessment that avoids judging according to an external standard. True, the general criterion of efficiency or success being used here could be called transcultural; but the relativist can plausibly argue that the criterion is one that every culture would accept; for to affinity tag reject it would amount to saying that one did not care whether one’s society flourished or failed. However, for the relativists, this line of defense only sets the problem back a step. Science:! The critic will next pose the question: Regarding the goals societies set for tag themselves, do we have any reason for of raisin in the preferring some goals over others? Suppose a society’s overarching goals include realizing racial purity or achieving world domination.

If relativists allow for no way of affinity tag appraising such goals, insisting that any preferences we express are arbitrary, then, the critics will say, their position is once more shown to be beyond the pale of common sense. (iii) A third option for Lithium-Ion Essay relativists is to embrace what might be called (following Richard Rorty) an “ethnocentric” position. Relativists of this stripe continue to insist that all moralities are in tag the same boat insofar as none can be conclusively proved in some absolute sense to be true or false, right or wrong, or better than any other available moral outlook. But, they argue, it does not follow from classes of ancient, this that relativists cannot consistently prefer some moralities over others, nor that they cannot offer reasons for tag their preference. They simply admit that when they appraise moralities, they do so according to norms and values constitutive of their particular moral standpoint, one that they probably share with most other members of their cultural community. Thus, a relativist might condemn laws prohibiting homosexuality in the name of such values as happiness, freedom, and equality. Designer! But she does not claim that she can prove that this normative standpoint is objectively superior to that of the culture outlawing homosexuality. Possibly those she is criticizing might share her values, in tag which case they may be open to persuasion.

But they might have different basic values; for instance, they may favor executing homosexuals in order to realize a certain vision of moral purity. Summary Of Raisin Sun! In that case, the standoff seems to tag be at the level of Essay Designer fundamental values. Affinity Tag! And when that is the case, the relativist may accept that she cannot demonstrate the of raisin in the sun objective superiority of affinity her views in a non question-begging way—that is, without making assumptions that those she is trying to Othello's Tragic persuade will reject. To the critic, moral relativism implies that one moral view is just as good or as bad as any other, and to take this line is to affinity tag countenance immorality. But the hydroxide difference between Western academics who are moral relativists and their fellow academics who criticize them is clearly not a deep difference in moral values. They all are likely to praise democracy and condemn discrimination. The difference is, rather, at affinity tag the meta-ethical level in their view of the status of moral judgments and the kind of justification they allow. The critics believe some sort of objective bulwark is needed to prevent the slide toward an “anything goes” form of moral nihilism.

The relativists see this anxiety as mistaken since what it asks for is both impossible and mass calcium, unnecessary. In their view, an “ethnocentric” justification of one’s views is the only kind available, and it is enough. d. Relativism Undermines the Possibility of a Society Being Self-Critical. If the rightness or wrongness of actions, practices, or institutions can only affinity be judged by reference to molar mass calcium the norms of the tag culture in which they are found, then how can members of hydroxide that society criticize those norms on moral grounds? And how can they argue that the prevailing norms should be changed? If, for instance, a society has a caste system under which one caste enjoys great privileges while another caste is allowed to do only menial work, then this system will necessarily appear just according to affinity its own norms. So there will be nothing to criticize.

One apparent way for summary of raisin in the sun the relativist to avoid this objection is to affinity point out molar calcium that most societies are imperfect even by their own lights; what actually happens usually falls short of the ideals espoused. For instance, an official commitment to equality is belied by discriminatory laws. Thus, a society can be self-critical by noticing gaps between its practices and its ideals. This is a weak response, however, since the sort of self-criticism it allows is affinity tag, quite limited. Often, the most important kind of self-criticism involves a demand that the ideals themselves be changed, as, for instance, when the of ancient American and French revolutions articulated new egalitarian values. Can moral relativism make sense of a society’s own members rejecting the prevailing norms?

The answer is that it all depends on the precise sort of moral relativism being espoused. Affinity Tag! If the particular standpoint, by reference to Essay which moral claims are appraised, has to affinity be that constituted by the prevailing norms in a society, then it is hard to see how those norms themselves can be criticized. But if the relativist only insists that moral claims are true or false relative to some particular standpoint, then this does not follow. In that case, the prevailing moral norms can be judged wrong from an alternative point of view, which may be the one the relativist favors. For instance, the current treatment of animals on American factory farms could be criticized by an American relativist who adopts the standpoint of a utilitarian committed to the minimization of unnecessary suffering. Closely related to the argument concerning a society’s capacity for self-criticism is the Science: of The Table objection that moral relativism implies there is no such thing as moral progress. A society may change its norms by, say, ending systematic discrimination against affinity certain groups, or becoming less indifferent to the suffering of animals. But if there is no neutral point of view from which such changes can be appraised, how can one argue that they constitute progress? Indeed, from the point of view of the old norms, any changes must appear suspect, since the old norms dictate what is right. Like the previous objection, this argument has the form of a reductio ad absurdum. Almost everyone believes that moral progress can and does occur within a society.

The abolition of slavery is a paradigm of such progress. So, any theory implying that such changes do not constitute progress must be false. By the same token, moral relativism can also be criticized for Essay on The Job of not allowing the affinity possibility of moral decline, which also presumably occurs at times. One response a relativist could offer to this objection is simply to embrace the conclusion and summary of raisin sun, insist that moral progress is a chimera; but this undeniably goes against what most people view as ethical common sense. The more common and more plausible response, therefore, is, once again, for the relativist to take the “ethnocentric” line. Tag! On this view, moral progress is possible, but not relative to objective, trans-cultural criteria. It can only be gauged by reference to some particular moral standpoint that cannot be conclusively proved superior to in the other points of view. Thus, relativists, like everyone else, will view the affinity abolition of slavery as progress because they affirm values such as freedom, equality, and individual happiness.

They simply deny that it represents progress in some more objective sense—from “the God’s eye point of view,” so to speak. e. Relativism is Pragmatically Self-Refuting. A standard objection to Essay Job of Designer cognitive relativism, which is sometimes advanced against moral relativism, is that it is affinity, pragmatically self-refuting. The basic idea behind it is that moral relativists, whatever their official meta-ethical position, cannot avoid being implicitly committed to in the sun certain fundamental norms and values, and they presuppose this commitment in affinity the very act of arguing for moral relativism. So, the content of the theory is at odds with the practice of affirming or defending it. Jurgen Habermas develops this line of argument by Technology Introducs Batteries claiming that anyone participating in rational discourse reveals, through that very act, a commitment to certain values that belong to tag a normative notion of Essay rationality: for instance, values such as sincerity or open-mindedness. Relativists, however, are likely to be skeptical about the universality of these alleged implicit commitments. To them, the concept of rationality in affinity tag question is characteristic of of ancient china a particular time and affinity, place. To be sure, they may, as modern Western liberals, embrace values such as sincerity or open-mindedness.

But they can still plausibly deny that they have an objective duty to do so, or that such values are necessarily embedded in all acts of communication and must therefore be viewed as universal. f. Relativism Rests on an Incoherent Notion of Essay Truth. What does it mean for a moral belief to tag be true relative to a particular culture? If it merely means that most members of that culture hold that belief, then it is a somewhat grandiose and misleading way of Othello's Tragic Flaw Essay stating a simple fact. Presumably, therefore, relativists mean something more by it. In addition, they cannot be simply making the banal point that someone belonging to affinity tag that culture who rejects the belief in question is in the minority, or is perceived to be mistaken by the majority. The relativist thesis seems to be that in sun some sense the truth (or falsity) of a person’s moral beliefs is either determined by or constituted by their coherence (or lack of coherence) with the prevailing moral outlook in that person’s community.

This raises a number of awkward issues. It seems to imply, for instance, that the majority can never be wrong on moral matters. And a corollary of that is that within a given community, dissidents must always be wrong. These ideas go against our normal ways of thinking. A further problem for the relativist thesis is affinity, that it seems not to take into Technology, account exactly how the prevailing moral norms in a society were established. If they gained ascendancy over time, shaped by affinity collective experience, then one could perhaps view them as the outcome of an implicit social contract, and in that sense to classes china have some claim to rationality. But what if they were initially imposed on a society forcibly by affinity tag conquerors or dictatorial rulers? Does that make a difference? It certainly sounds odd to Flaw say that a moral statement that once was false can be made true by the establishment of a new religious or political order and the consolidation of its ideas.

Moral relativists are thus under some pressure to explain why they go beyond simple factual statements about what the affinity tag majority in a society believes, insisting on advancing a philosophical claim about the Technology truth of moral statements. This is one reason some would give for viewing moral relativism as an instance of tag a more general relativism that sees the truth of any statement as a function of its coherence with a broader theoretical framework. Relativists who base their position on a sharp distinction between facts and values must work with two distinct notions of truth: factual claims are made true by correspondence to reality; moral claims are made true by social of ancient cohering with or being entailed by the surrounding conceptual scheme. Those who see truth of tag any kind as ultimately a matter of inter-subjective agreement may be better positioned to avoid this problem. g. The Relativist Position on Tolerance is of ancient china, Problematic. A good deal of the debate surrounding moral relativism has focused on its claim to exemplify and foster tolerance. There are at least three lines of criticism against this claim. (i) Tolerance is not the same as respect. Showing genuine respect for a culture means taking its beliefs seriously, and that means viewing them as candidates for critical appraisal. The relativist eschews any evaluation of other cultures’ norms in the name of tolerance; however, this attitude is actually patronizing. It suggests that the beliefs could not withstand critical scrutiny, or perhaps that they are just not worth appraising.

(ii) Moral relativists inconsistently posit a principle of tolerance as a universal obligation. Relativists say we should be tolerant of beliefs and practices found in other cultures. Affinity! This is a normative claim. Othello's Flaw Essay! If it applies to everyone, then it is a trans-cultural moral principle, in which case relativism is false. If, on the other hand, relativism is true, then this principle of tolerance does not express a trans-cultural obligation binding on everyone; it merely expresses the values associated with a particular moral standpoint. Tolerance is, of course, a central value espoused by modern liberal societies. But according to the relativist’s own position, members of other societies where tolerance is not viewed so positively have no reason to affinity tag accept the idea that one ought to be tolerant. History Table! So for other societies, the fact that relativism promotes tolerance is not a point in its favor, and relativists have no business preaching tolerance to them. It would not be self-contradictory for tag moral relativists to hold that all moral principles have only a relative validity except for Tragic the principle of tolerance, which enjoys a unique status.

But the resulting position would be peculiar. Affinity Tag! The relativistic viewpoint would be significantly modified and some account would be owed of why the principle of tolerance alone has universal validity. For this reason, a more common relativistic response to the criticism is of raisin in the, along the lines suggested by David Wong. Affinity! Relativists can simply accept that the obligation to be tolerant has only Essay on The Job of relative validity or scope. It applies to those whose general moral standpoint affirms or entails tolerance as a value; and only these people are likely to be swayed by the argument that relativism promotes tolerance. (iii) The relativist’s advocacy of tolerance is affinity tag, morally misguided since not everything should be tolerated. This is, in calcium effect, another version of the charge that moral relativism entails an “anything goes” attitude that countenances obvious wrongs in other societies such as religious persecution or sexual discrimination. Affinity! It even requires us to be tolerant of classes of ancient china intolerance, at affinity tag least if it occurs in another culture. Clearly, this is a problem for anyone, relativist or not, who elevates the principle that we should be tolerant to an absolute, exceptionless rule. But for relativists who do not do this, the problem will seem less pressing.

Tolerance, they will argue, is social classes of ancient china, one of the values constitutive of affinity tag their standpoint—a standpoint they share with most other people in modern liberal societies. From this standpoint, intolerance can and will be criticized, as will other policies and practices, wherever they occur, that seem to cause unhappiness or unnecessarily limit people’s prospects. The relativistic stance is useful, however, in helping to make us less arrogant about the correctness of Science: History of The Periodic Table our own norms, more sensitive to cultural contexts when looking at how others live, and a little less eager in affinity tag our willingness to criticize what goes on in other cultures. The more difficult, practical question concerns not whether we should ever criticize the beliefs and practices found in other cultures, but whether we are ever justified in trying to impose our values on them through diplomatic pressure, economic sanctions, boycotts, or military force. This question has arisen in social china relation to such practices as satee in India, persecution of religious or ethnic minorities, female circumcision, and legalized violence against affinity women. But it is not a problem that only Technology Introducs Lithium-Ion Batteries Essay moral relativists have to confront. Over the tag years moral relativism has attracted a great deal of Essay on The Job of Designer criticism, and not just from tag, professional philosophers. One reason for this, of on The an Interior course, is that it is widely perceived to be a way of thinking that is on the rise. Affinity! Indeed, by on The the end of the twentieth century it had become a commonplace among teachers of affinity moral philosophy in the US that the default view of morality held by the majority of college students was some form of moral relativism. Another reason for so much trenchant criticism is that a relativistic view of hydroxide morality is thought by many to have pernicious consequences.

For example, in tag September 2011, Pope Benedict XVI blamed it for the riots that had taken place in Britain a few weeks earlier, arguing that “[w]hen policies do not presume or promote objective values, the resulting moral relativism . tends instead to on The produce frustration, despair, selfishness and a disregard for the life and liberty of others” ( National Catholic Reporter , Sept. 12, 2011). However, the attitude labeled “moral relativism” by the pope and others who worry about the moral health of contemporary society is not a well defined or rigorously defended philosophical position. It typically amounts to little more than a skepticism about objective moral truth, often expressed as the idea that beliefs and actions are not right or wrong per se, only tag right or wrong for someone. Philosophers like Gilbert Harman, David Wong, and Richard Rorty who defend forms of moral relativism seek to articulate and defend philosophically sophisticated alternatives to objectivism. As they see it, they are not countenancing immorality, injustice, or moral nihilism; rather, they are trying to say something about the nature of moral claims and the justifications given for them. The main problem they face is to show how the Othello's Tragic denial of affinity tag objective moral truth need not entail a subjectivism that drains the rationality out of moral discourse.

Their critics, on summary of raisin in the sun, the other hand, face the possibly even more challenging task of justifying the claim that there is such a thing as objective moral truth.

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Resume Format Guide - Reverse-Chronological, Functional, Combination Styles. By Resume Genius. Making a perfect resume needs more than just error-free spelling and affinity tag grammar. Othello's. A resume must be framed and formatted to present you in the best way possible, a process that requires combining creativity, composition, and marketing. Therefore, we’ve written this resume format guide to affinity, be a comprehensive resource to those looking to format their own resumes. Job Of. We provide writing tips, expert advice, and sample images covering every resume format for your convenience. Looking for affinity, more resume samples?

Click the link below. How to Choose the classes china Best Resume Format. Use the chart below to get a quick idea of which resume format will be best for presenting your unique job experience. As you may have seen above, job seekers have three options when it comes to formatting their resume: Chronological, Functional, and Combination . Each resume format has their own set of advantages and disadvantages for different kinds of affinity, job seekers, so be sure to choose wisely. Check out the in-depth writing guides below to get every bit of Science: Table, information needed to create the tag best resume for you: To get inspiration and an idea of what your resume can look like, we’ve created three huge libraries of resume format examples . The links below are separated by resume style and include industry-specific samples.

Visit each library and find your industry. As the calcium name suggests, a reverse chronological resume presents your work experience information from newest (most relevant) to oldest (least relevant). This means the resume will begin with your most recent job, and affinity tag end with your oldest experience. This structure allows you to present yourself in terms of your promotions and upward career mobility , and is therefore particularly useful for entry to mid level applicants looking to mass hydroxide, boost their careers. I should use a reverse chronological resume format if… I want to demonstrate a vertical career progression. I want to apply to a job in a similar field. I don’t have large work experience gaps.

I shouldn’t use a reverse chronological style if… I have multiple gaps in my employment history. I am considering working in tag, a new industry I frequently change jobs. To learn more about what should be in included in a reverse-chronological resume, click here. The functional resume format frames the candidate in terms of the skills and abilities he/she believes are most relevant to the job opening . Unlike the reverse chronological resume, the functional resume ignores when and where the candidate learned or performed those skills . The candidate and simply lists them at Essay on The, the top of the resume in order of most relevant to least relevant skills. Even the “least relevant” skill should still be relevant to tag, the job you are applying for. “Least relevant” here really means “the least relevant of your most relevant skills.” Warning: Many human resources professionals have negative impressions of Science: Table, functional resumes precisely because they do not reveal chronological information, making it seem like the affinity tag candidate is calcium, hiding something. By using the functional format, job candidates can achieve three big goals:

provide evidence that they are strong candidates for the job, and hide work experience gaps (if they haven’t been working for periods of tag, time.) help hiring managers quickly locate specific skills that are required for History of The Periodic Table Essay, a particular position, which is affinity tag, beneficial. I should use a functional resume format if… I have unusually large gaps in Essay an Interior Designer, my employment history. I am in affinity, the midst of a big career change into a new industry. I want to promote a specific skill set.

I shouldn’t use a functional style if: I want to highlight my upward career mobility. I am a student or entry-level candidate that lacks experience. I lack relevant or transferable skills. To learn more about what should be in included in a functional resume, click here. A combination resume is literally a combination of the reverse-chronological and functional resume formats. History Of The Periodic Essay. Combination resumes will often begin with a professional profile or summary of qualifications that includes skills, abilities, and achievements relevant to the job opening. (This is the affinity functional part.) This introductory section is then followed by your reverse-chronological professional experience, education, and additional sections. (This is the reverse-chronological part.) I should use a combination resume format if… I want to molar calcium hydroxide, showcase a relevant and well-developed skill set.

I want to transfer to a different industry. Tag. I am a master at what I do. I shouldn’t use a combination resume format if… I am a student or entry level candidate. I want to emphasize my educational experience. I lack relevant qualifications and Technology Introducs Lithium-Ion Batteries Essay skills. To learn more about tag, what should be in included in a combination resume format, click here.

If you have any specific questions not answered in this guide please feel free to post them in social of ancient, the comments at the bottom of the page and one of our Senior Resume Experts will be glad to tag, answer them for you! PS. Introducs Essay. Need that job? Be sure to download our Resume Checklist to ensure that you’ve written a complete, professional resume. Click Here to Download.

Our Resume Checklist. If I apply a admin. job but I only have relevant experience several years ago, and now in school learning social service. Affinity Tag. How can I make my resume? Emphasize old skills and transferable skills from calcium hydroxide social service in affinity tag, a combination or functional resume. Good luck on the job hunt! Yes, if you have several impressive awards/honors then they can definitely be place above your professional experience. Good luck on the job hunt! We suggest using a combination format.

Best of luck on Othello's Tragic Essay, the job hunt! We suggest that you stick with the traditional reverse-chronological format. Good luck! I did a career shift recently to teaching after having a graduate degree and affinity 10 years experience in planning and development. Of Raisin In The Sun. I have recently completed a graduate degree in education and affinity tag have 2 years of Othello's Tragic Essay, teaching experience in a preschool setting and tag trying to now make the shift to of ancient china, elementary age. Do you think I should use a combination resume?

A combination resume should work for your situation. Check out our combination format writing guide for more info: For a chronological resume, if I completed an internship with a past employer — while simultaneously being employed by them — does the internship go above or below the primary employment experience? (E.g., I worked at HSBV from 8/2013 – 12/2015, with my internship — also at HSBV — from 1/2015 – 5/2015, so right in affinity tag, the middle of Technology Introducs Batteries, my employment with them. Should the internship be listed before, or after?) You should list you internship after your employment. Good luck! I have what I perceive to be a unique situation (I understand everyone thinks they are different).

I am an army veteran of nearly 7 years and affinity tag now I am studying to get my BS is Homeland Security. I joined the army at social of ancient, 19 in 2006 and got out in 2013. From 2013 until January of this year, I have been trying to make my own way as an entrepreneur. I was largely unsuccessful and in order to stay on top of my bills I ended up taking odd jobs during the affinity tag day while working as a bouncer at various bars and Othello's clubs at night. I am currently looking for tag, an internship as part of my degree program so i need to Science: Periodic Essay, create a resume. I thought a functional resume would be ideal so as to blur the past 3 years.

However, I understand from this article that students should use a chronological resume. I need to know how firm that rule is. Affinity. Also, if anyone has any specific guidance for my resume I am very willing to of raisin sun, accept advice. Thanks. In your situation, we would suggest using a functional format. This will allow you to focus on your skills that are relevant to the internship you are applying for. Tag. Good luck on the job hunt and thank you for your service!

Okay so I am a third year college student looking for a part-time job that fits my class schedule and isn’t in the fast-food industry to help me pay rent next year. I have never had to write a resume for any of my other jobs so I’m at a loss as to what to calcium, do. I am applying as an entry-level applicant but I also didn’t work during my freshman year and about half of affinity, my sophomore year. Therefore I’m not really sure how to approach this and social of ancient I really need this job. Please help! Thanks! Good luck on tag, the job hunt!

Consider adding a ‘Publications’ section to include your research and of raisin in the writing experience. Good luck on tag, the job hunt. Several positions require a chronological resume be included. I am over 40, most recent position was over 5 yrs ago as a Seasonal Tax Professional with HR Block. Recently received my AA degree. Molar Calcium Hydroxide. I do not include employment start – end dates on my resume for affinity, many reasons but I am not trying to look like someone who can not or will not follow directions either.

Please share your thoughts. Hi I used to on The an Interior Designer, be a pediatric nurse for two years till moved to this country on 2012 and have been working at affinity tag, Walmart since then, recently got my RN license and want to Flaw Essay, start working as a nurse…what type would you recommend me? In your case, we suggest using a functional resume. Best of luck on affinity, the job hunt! Hi, I am presently working as Project Manager in construction company and calcium before this I worked as Operations Manager in affinity, a different company. Now I want to of raisin, apply for affinity tag, a job (Title : Plant Manager). I am confused which format I should choose to post for this job opportunity.

Please recommend. We suggest sticking with the traditional reverse-chronological format. Best of luck! Detailing all 18 years of your experience might be overdoing it. With three pages, there is likely some redundant information that you could cut. However, if you truly feel that all of your content is relevant and molar mass calcium of interest to the employer, then stick with what you have. Best of affinity tag, luck on the job hunt! I am now trying to rejoin the full-time workforce after almost a 17 year absence. Classes Of Ancient. Prior to marriage mother hood I was a very successful Director of Public relations for tag, a well known beauty company in NYC (1990-1996).

After that I joined a small firm on Long Island as their first ever Director of PR and advertising (1997-1999). Then babies came. 6 years later I joined a local firm as their Director of Operations (office manager) from 2006-2009. Then my family and Introducs Lithium-Ion I moved to Switzerland and affinity just returned after 7 years. I was a teacher of English as a Second Language. I am looking for Essay on The an Interior, work in almost any capacity: From Communications manager to administrative assistant.

I am struggling with how to present my resume. I’ve been letting my cover letters explain the history and why I would be a good fit for any given position, but I’m sure my resume is holding me back. Any ideas. Affinity. Thanks in advance! If you’re looking to Flaw Essay, get back into communications or office management, then it might be better to affinity tag, use a functional format. On The An Interior Designer. This will allow you to affinity tag, emphasize your skills instead of the dates of your work experience.

As far as explaining work gaps in your cover letter, check out this how-to guide: While I was in Lithium-Ion Batteries, high school I did my internship at for State Farm. After I graduated I was offered a job there and stayed there for 2 years. I have recently worked at affinity tag, the National Instituted of Health for a year. I currently want to go back to Flaw Essay, finding an office job or something related and need help deciding what type of resume I should use?

Based on the info you’ve given us, a ‘Chronological’ format would still be appropriate. Best of affinity, luck! If the the position you are applying for is also an administrative job, then stick with the traditional Reverse-Chronological resume format. Good luck on the job hunt! Glad you liked it! Hi there! This is great. I was just wondering, if I’ve been at the same position for 3 years (2014-present) but did a second job for 6 months in 2015 that I would like to list, would I put that first (since technically 2015 is more recent than 2014)? Or would I list that after my current position, since I’m still presently in this role?

Thanks! List your current position first. Best of luck! A combination or functional resume would be suitable. Best of luck! It sounds like a functional format would be a good choice. Good luck on the job hunt! Hi there Elizabeth, You have a bit of flexibility with the resume format, but when in doubt go with reverse-chronological. Because you’re lacking in transferable skills, I’d recommend working on your resume objective to get your application started on Flaw, the right foot. Affinity. Also consider the soft skills you’ve built during your time working in a call center.

Many of these could potentially be transferable. Good luck with your job application! Yes, a combination resume is perfectly suited to someone of your experience, even with the career change. Good luck making the social of ancient china shift back into your previous field! If you are aiming for a new industry, you can’t go wrong with the classic “reverse-chronological” resume format.

Good luck landing your fellowship! Share Resume Format Guide – Reverse-Chronological, Functional, #038; Combination Styles Our code geeks and affinity HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in Othello's Tragic Essay, today’s competitive job market. We provide HR-approved resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and easy export to MS Word and PDF. Get awesome job opportunities sent directly to your inbox. By clicking Send Me Job Alerts, I agree to the Resume Genius Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Play the One-Minute Game That’ll Show You How to Improve Your Resume. Think you can judge the quality of affinity, a resume within 6 seconds? The answer may surprise you.

Put your skills to the test, and Othello's Tragic Flaw learn how to make your resume 6 second worthy! 3 Reasons Why I Wouldn't Hire Tom Brady. Tom Brady’s resume is affinity tag, a couple yards short of a touchdown. Summary Of Raisin In The Sun. There are tons of errors throughout. See why. How to Modify and Maximize your Resume Template. Need a resume template? Feel free to download one, but be sure to make small modifications to affinity, unlock your. Would You Rather Work for a Man or a Woman? Do people still care whether they work for a man or woman, or do most people simply look for a nice job. 5 Ridiculous Excuses To Calling Out Of Work That Were Surprisingly Successful.

Every office is bound to have that one person that abuses the call-out policy. These people go above and. Resume Genius' builder, resources, advice and career tips are regularly featured on some of the Batteries Essay world's leading online and offline publications including: Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in today's competitive job market. HR-proven resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and easily export to affinity, MS Word and PDF.

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30 Book Report Templates #038; Reading Worksheets. Reading helps students develop a strong imagination, encourages their creativity, and strengthens their analytical skills. Teachers assign a lot of book reports to ensure that students read lots of books, especially at that critical early age when they are still trying to master the written word. To cut down on some of the workload, students and teachers can find a book report template to download and fill in. Affinity! This gives more time to enjoy the act of reading, so students can become life long learners. A book report is typically given as an assignment to molar calcium, students in affinity tag elementary and middle school. Students fill out a form answering basic questions about the book they were assigned to Introducs Essay, read. Turning in the report serves as proof to the teacher that the student read the book and, hopefully, got something out of it. These reports may ask students to detail what the book was about, the names of the main characters, what the theme of the book is, and where the events are set. Some reports may ask specific questions about events or characters to affinity tag, ensure that the students read the book all the way through.

The report can also help students understand the book better by asking them to think about its meaning and the plot. Teachers may also hand out Tragic worksheets for students to affinity tag, complete in class or as homework. These are usually limited to Flaw Essay, the earlier grades when students are still learning to affinity, read. Reading worksheets ask simple questions about the book without requiring multiple sentence answers. These questions may ask students to name a favorite character, or mention the calcium hydroxide, main conflict in affinity a few words. Molar Mass Hydroxide! It’s not uncommon for the teacher to read a picture book with the class and have students fill out a worksheet afterwards. If the classroom has a bookshelf, there may also be a ‘Reading Time’ when students pick out a book to read. When they finish, the students fill out the worksheet and submit it to their teacher. Book report forms are a popular choice of assignment for elementary school classes. These forms make it simple for students to complete the report by filling out the worksheet. Tag! These sheets can be generic with standard questions, or teachers may create a unique sheet with questions specific to each different book that is assigned.

These forms also help introduce students to the idea of History Periodic Table, a book report format and show them what kind of information may be expected on longer, multi-page reports that they are expected to complete in the higher grades. A form is also easier to grade, especially for teachers who have a large classroom and affinity more assignments to go over than usual. A simple book report features a few sections that ask students to answer questions in paragraph format. These each ask students to of The, detail a different element of the affinity, book. All book report forms will ask for the title, author name, and summary in the the illustrator’s name, if it is a picture book. The other elements on a simple form include: Setting – This is where the book’s events took place, i.e.

New York. Characters – A list of who the main characters are and their names. Plot – A basic overview of the major events in the book. Your impressions – Whether you like the book or not, and affinity tag why. A simple form may also just ask the students to describe the beginning, middle, and end events of the book in three questions.

Students may also be expected to identify the climax, which is the most intense point of the book where the main character’s problems are resolved or made worse. This helps get students thinking about the traditional progression of Tragic Flaw, a plot. Affinity! Eventually, teachers transition students to writing a multi-page book report. The report is usually written in a word processing software, like MS Word. Students can find book report format templates for these assignments too.

These longer reports are written out in paragraph form. The teacher asks the students to address different elements of a book in their own words or with their own formatting. A simple way to organize these reports is to divide them into three basic sections, the introduction, main body, and conclusion. In the main body, students can create a different subheading for each element to address. For instance, Introduction – The first paragraph; includes book title, author, genre, and why you chose the book. Main Body – The middle part of the report; includes summary, theme, setting, and characters. Conclusion – A short summary of the book report and opinion of the book. Difference Between The Book Report Types.

The short book report form is handed out by the teacher and Essay Job of an Interior can be completed in one night like a homework assignment. A multi-page report is created by the student and may take more than one night to finish. Short templates are available in lots of fun book report ideas suitable for young children. They have questions with a few lines to affinity tag, hand write the answers in summary in the a few short sentences. Some templates may include activities to make them more interesting to tag, students, such as having them draw out a scene from the book or re-write the ending. Multi-page reports start out as two page reports and gradually increase in size through middle school and high school.

Of course, those two page reports are just as difficult for young students as the five page reports are for high school students. The great thing about these assignments is that students are usually free to organize their book report ideas however they desire. China! They can create bold sub-headers for the main body of the report. Students can write about the theme, characters, and setting separately. Or they can leave out the headers and tag devote their report to a specific element, such as the book theme. This allows students to weave information about characters and calcium hydroxide setting into the report where they are most relevant to the theme. The former works well for short chapter books, and the latter is better for books that may feature multiple themes. Ideas for Different Kinds of affinity tag, Book Reports. There is more than one way to complete a book report. Both teachers and students may find these creative ideas more interesting than a straightforward report.

Write a review of the book. Create the report in the form of a newspaper or blog review. Summarize the book without giving away the hydroxide, plot or the ending. Talk about what made you like it or, if you hated it. Feel free to give the book a thumbs up or down rating at the end. Do a diary.

Use a journal template to create a diary written by one of the main characters. There should be multiple entries that follow or discuss the events of the book from that character’s point of view. Interview one of the characters. Create an imaginary interview with one of the characters in the book. Ask them questions about where they come from, why the affinity, character did something important to the plot, and what the character thinks about the outcome of the events in the book. Write a newspaper article.

Create an china imaginary newspaper article detailing one of the major events in the book, such as a theft or an important discovery. Make sure to affinity, answer the who, what, where, when, and why of History of The Periodic, these events in your article. What To Do Once You’ve Written The Report. When students finish writing out their book reports, they have completed what is called the “First Draft” or “Rough Draft”. This is just the affinity, first stage of the report, but it is the Introducs Batteries Essay, most difficult part. Finishing up that report in the following steps is a lot easier. Read and mark the report. Read through the book report from beginning to affinity tag, end to get a feel for it overall. Get a brightly colored pen to Essay on The Job of an Interior Designer, mark any spelling or punctuation errors you find in the report. Young students may want to read through their reports with their parents or a tutor. Sometimes, teachers actually make students submit a rough draft of their reports for points before the final report is due.

The teacher reviews the draft, makes edits, and suggestions for affinity tag, changing the report before final submission. Make edits to mass calcium, the report. Affinity Tag! Go back into classes of ancient china the report file and affinity make the easy grammar and spelling fixes. Take a look at your teacher’s suggestions or the ideas you wrote down for things to change in Science: History of The Periodic the report. Create a plan to make those additions or changes. Affinity! Make the changes to Essay, the report.

Don’t forget to save your file as a separate document. For instance, save your rough draft as, Report1.doc, and this updated version as, Report2.doc. Review the affinity tag, report. Print out a fresh copy of the of raisin sun, report. Read through it one more time looking for spelling errors and grammar mistakes. Keep an eye out for affinity tag, spots where the text doesn’t make sense. This can sometimes happen when you add new content to a report. If there are mistakes, fix them in the document file and Othello's Tragic Flaw review one more time.

Your final draft is affinity tag ready to print out when you can no longer find any mistakes. Book reports are a big part of the curriculum. That doesn’t mean they have to Batteries, be a lot of work for the students or the teacher. Make assigning these reports less of a hassle with these tips. Affinity Tag! Assign one book for the entire class to read. This can cut down on Science: Table Essay, the effort required in understanding submitted reports.

Pick out a short book report template to use. Affinity! There is classes of ancient china no need to use valuable time in tag creating one from scratch. Print out more copies of the form than are needed. Some students may lose theirs and need an extra form. Make reminder announcements when a due date approaches. Remind students at least twice before a book report due date. Othello's Tragic! Keep the tag, word count requirement low. Calcium Hydroxide! Teachers also have to spend more time reviewing longer reports.

Consider creative alternatives to some written reports. Affinity! When your curriculum includes a lot of book reports, give students the option of turning in Othello's Flaw Essay a drawing, diorama, or another project as a break. Being assigned a book report to complete can seem like a daunting task, especially if if you have never written a multi-page report. Make sure you don’t fall behind on the work by following a few of these tips. Make up a reading schedule to tag, complete the book well in advance of the report being due. Use a calendar to remind yourself. Assign yourself different steps to complete each night for the report, i.e. make an outline, write 200 words, or revising Ask the teacher for help with ideas if you can’t figure out how to get started. Look for examples of Essay on The an Interior Designer, completed reports to see how they are structured.

Book reports vary in their length and complexity. Elementary school students get simple, one page forms to fill in about the books they read. Those in middle school and high school usually have to write multiple page reports. Nearly all reports require students to talk about the plot, theme, characters, and how they liked the book. Both students and affinity tag teachers can find a lot of templates to use. Those looking for something generic for students to fill in after reading a book can pick up a .pdf or .jpg form.

Those who want more control over the look and wording of the template should download a .doc file.

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