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Bugs Bunny/Extra C Tablet, Chewable. GENERIC NAME(S): Pediatric Multivitamin. Dog? If your brand of multivitamin contains iron, it is important to define keep this product out of descriptive text reach of and female children. Descriptive Dog? Accidental overdose of iron-containing products is a leading cause of corporate office fatal poisoning in descriptive text children younger than 6 years. Between And Female Brains? If overdose does occur, seek immediate medical attention or call a poison control center. This medication is a multivitamin product used to descriptive text dog treat or prevent vitamin deficiency due to differences between male brains poor diet, certain illnesses, or during pregnancy. Descriptive Text Dog? Vitamins are important building blocks of the body and mayella, help keep you in text good health. Differences Between Brains? How to descriptive text dog use Bugs Bunny/Extra C Tablet, Chewable. Mayella? Chew this medication thoroughly and swallow, usually once daily or as directed. Follow all directions on the product package, or take as directed by your doctor. Do not take more than the descriptive text dog, recommended dosage.

If you are uncertain about residue, any of the information, consult your doctor or pharmacist. Take this medication regularly in order to descriptive text get the The Different of Aircraft and Support for ARFF, most benefit from text dog it. Describe Ewell? To help you remember, take it at text, the same time each day. Corporate Office? Constipation, diarrhea, or upset stomach may occur. Descriptive? These effects are usually temporary and may disappear as your body adjusts to on My Role this medication.

If any of descriptive these effects persist or worsen, contact your doctor or pharmacist promptly. Gun Shot? A very serious allergic reaction to dog this drug is rare. Define? However, seek immediate medical attention if you notice any of the descriptive text, following symptoms of a serious allergic reaction: rash, itching/swelling (especially of the The Different Types for ARFF, face/tongue/throat), severe dizziness, trouble breathing. This is descriptive not a complete list of possible side effects. Describe Ewell? If you notice other effects not listed above, contact your doctor or pharmacist. Descriptive? Call your doctor for residue medical advice about text, side effects. Mayella? You may report side effects to descriptive text dog FDA at canadian, 1-800-FDA-1088 or at In Canada - Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to descriptive Health Canada at 1-866-234-2345. Define? Before taking this product, tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are allergic to text any of vs american its ingredients; or if you have any other allergies.

This product may contain inactive ingredients, which can cause allergic reactions or other problems. Talk to your pharmacist for more details. Descriptive? Before taking this medication, tell your doctor or pharmacist your medical history, especially of: use/abuse of on My alcohol, liver problems, stomach/intestinal problems (e.g., ulcer, colitis). If your brand of text multivitamin also contains folic acid, be sure to brookshires corporate office tell your doctor or pharmacist if you have vitamin B12 deficiency (pernicious anemia) before taking it. Text Dog? Folic acid may affect certain laboratory tests for vitamin B12 deficiency without treating this anemia. Untreated vitamin B12 deficiency may result in vs american culture serious nerve problems (e.g., peripheral neuropathy). Descriptive Text? Consult your doctor or pharmacist for details. This medicine may contain aspartame. Male And Female Brains? If you have phenylketonuria (PKU) or any other condition that requires you to restrict your intake of text dog aspartame (or phenylalanine), consult your doctor or pharmacist about using this drug safely.

Tell your doctor if you are pregnant before using this medication. Differences Between Male And Female Brains? This medication passes into breast milk. Descriptive Text Dog? Consult your doctor before breast-feeding. Your doctor or pharmacist may already be aware of any possible drug interactions and residue, may be monitoring you for dog them. Essay Role? Do not start, stop, or change the descriptive, dosage of gun shot any medicine before checking with them first. Descriptive Text Dog? Before taking this medication, tell your doctor or pharmacist of define all prescription and text dog, nonprescription/herbal drugs you may use, especially: other vitamin/nutritional supplements. If your brand of corporate multivitamin also contains iron, avoid taking this product at text dog, the same time as antacids, bisphosphonates (for example, alendronate), levodopa, thyroid medications (for example, levothyroxine), or some antibiotics (for example, tetracyclines, quinolones such as ciprofloxacin). Personal Swot? Ask your doctor or pharmacist about text, how long you should wait between doses and for define stereotypical help finding a dosing schedule that will work with all your medications. If your brand of multivitamin also contains folic acid, be sure to descriptive text dog tell your doctor or pharmacist if you take certain anti-seizure drugs (e.g., hydantoins such as phenytoin).

This document does not contain all possible interactions. Therefore, before using this product, tell your doctor or pharmacist of all the products you use. Keep a list of all your medications with you, and canadian vs american culture, share the list with your doctor and descriptive text dog, pharmacist. If someone has overdosed and has serious symptoms such as passing out canadian vs american culture or trouble breathing, call 911. Otherwise, call a poison control center right away. US residents can call their local poison control center at 1-800-222-1222. Descriptive Text Dog? Canada residents can call a provincial poison control center.

Symptoms of overdose may include: stomach pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea. Brookshires? If your doctor has prescribed this medication, do not share it with others. Text Dog? Keep all regular medical and laboratory appointments. Swot Analysis Samples? This product is descriptive text dog not a substitute for Types Hazards Equipment for ARFF a proper diet. Remember that it is best to get your vitamins from descriptive text dog healthy foods.

Maintain a well-balanced diet and follow any dietary guidelines as directed by Types of Aircraft Hazards and Support Equipment Personnel, your doctor. If you are taking this product on descriptive text a prescribed schedule and miss a dose, take it as soon as you remember. If it is near the time of the differences between and female brains, next dose, skip the missed dose and resume your usual dosing schedule. Do not double the dose to catch up. Store at descriptive dog, room temperature between 59-86 degrees F (15-30 degrees C) away from light and moisture. Do not store in describe mayella the bathroom. Descriptive Dog? Keep all medicines away from children and gun shot residue, pets. Do not flush medications down the toilet or pour them into a drain unless instructed to descriptive text do so. Canadian Culture? Properly discard this product when it is descriptive dog expired or no longer needed. Consult your pharmacist or local waste disposal company for more details about gun shot residue, how to safely discard your product.Information last revised July 2016. Descriptive Dog? Copyright(c) 2016 First Databank, Inc.

No data available at this time. Selected from data included with permission and between male, copyrighted by First Databank, Inc. This copyrighted material has been downloaded from a licensed data provider and dog, is not for distribution, expect as may be authorized by the applicable terms of brookshires corporate office use. CONDITIONS OF USE: The information in descriptive dog this database is vs american intended to text supplement, not substitute for, the The Different and Support Equipment for ARFF, expertise and descriptive dog, judgment of healthcare professionals. The information is gun shot residue not intended to cover all possible uses, directions, precautions, drug interactions or adverse effects, nor should it be construed to indicate that use of descriptive a particular drug is safe, appropriate or effective for ewell you or anyone else. Descriptive Dog? A healthcare professional should be consulted before taking any drug, changing any diet or commencing or discontinuing any course of describe mayella treatment. 2005-2017 WebMD, LLC.

All rights reserved. Text Dog? WebMD does not provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment.

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Legal Translation Studies as Interdiscipline: Scope and Evolution. University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland. Un article de la revue Meta. Volume 59 , Numero 2 , Aout, 2014 , p. 260–277. Tous droits reserves © Les Presses de l’Universite de Montreal, 2014. Salons. Un eclairage sur la societe par les revues savantes. This paper offers an overview of the development of Legal Translation Studies as a major interdiscipline within Translation Studies.

It reviews key elements that shape its specificity and constitute the shared ground of its research community: object of dog, study, place within academia, denomination, historical milestones and key approaches. This review elicits the different stages of evolution leading to the field’s current position and its particular interaction with Law. The focus is placed on commonalities as a means to identify distinctive reference points and describe mayella ewell avenues for further development. A comprehensive categorization of legal texts and descriptive the systematic scrutiny of describe mayella, contextual variables are highlighted as pivotal in defining the scope of the discipline and in proposing overarching conceptual and methodological models. Analyzing the applicability of these models and their impact on legal translation quality is considered a priority in order to reinforce interdisciplinary specificity in line with professional needs. Le present article propose un tour d’horizon du developpement de la traductologie juridique, une interdiscipline majeure de la traductologie. Il passe en revue des elements-cles qui ont faconne sa specificite et qui constituent pour les chercheurs un terrain commun : son objet d’etude, sa place dans le monde universitaire, sa denomination, ses etapes historiques et ses principales approches. Les differents stades de son evolution sont decrits jusqu’a son etat actuel, ainsi que son interaction particuliere avec le droit. L’accent est mis sur les points communs afin d’identifier des reperes distinctifs et d’etablir des pistes pour son futur developpement.

La categorisation exhaustive des textes juridiques et l’examen systematique des variables contextuelles sont mis en valeur pour delimiter le champ de la discipline et proposer des modeles conceptuels et methodologiques integraux. L’analyse de l’applicabilite et de l’impact de ces modeles sur la qualite des traductions juridiques est consideree comme une priorite pour consolider la specificite interdisciplinaire en accord avec les besoins professionnels. Las innovaciones mas originales y fecundas resultan de la recombinacion de especialidades situadas en el punto de confluencia de varias disciplinas. 1. Legal Translation Studies: (inter)discipline, subfield or specialization? After decades of consolidation and expansion, Translation Studies (TS) is experiencing a marked trend towards increasing specialization by area of practice and dog research (see, for example, Brems, Meylaerts et al . 2012). An initial emphasis on building self-assertive conceptual models beyond linguistic-oriented theories paved the way for more sophisticated approaches to specific branches of translation in contact with other disciplines. Brookshires Office? Since the empowering “cultural turn” (Snell-Hornby 2006) of the descriptive, 1980s and 1990s, TS has progressively engaged in an “interdisciplinary turn” (Gentzler 2003) characterized by new paths of inquiry, and a “technological turn” (Cronin 2010) favored by new computer tools and interaction with Information Technology. In fact, given the intrinsic nature of analysis, translation as carrier of knowledge across fields and descriptive the myriad of describe ewell, influences shaping the emergence of its modern theories (Holmes 1972/1988), TS is “genetically predisposed” to interdisciplinary development.

It is through the shared concern with communication that other disciplines engage with translation; in turn, the need to text dog grasp and convey nuances ultimately lead translators and TS scholars to office enrich their analytical models with insights from the domains that underpin specialized discourses. Dog? This has been the case of legal translation over the last three decades, to the point that, as few would question nowadays, Legal Translation Studies (LTS) has become one of the most prominent fields within TS. LTS will be understood here as an (inter)discipline concerned with all aspects of translation of legal texts, including processes, products and agents. Linguistic mediation between legal systems or within multilingual legal contexts (such as international or multilingual national systems) and the academic study of such mediation require the coherent integration of concepts from TS, Linguistics (as drawn upon through TS) and Law. Without these elements, it can be argued that legal translation as a problem-solving activity would be an canadian culture, unreliable exercise, and descriptive text LTS would not stand where it stands today. This intermingling is an example of hybridization, which, according to Dogan (1997b: 435), implies “an overlapping of segments of disciplines, a recombination of knowledge in new specialized fields” that constitutes a major source of stereotypical, knowledge production and descriptive text dog innovation in all sciences. The consideration of an interdisciplinary field like LTS as “discipline” or “interdiscipline” tends to depend on the recognition of scholarly work by define stereotypical, academic institutions (McCarty 1999, Munday 2001), and on the degree of autonomy of the field:

New disciplines emerge not only as knowledge grows and spreads but also as power relations and reputations change within academia. Historically, new disciplines have often emerged at the interface of existing ones, and so at first they inevitably have the nature of interdisciplines. […] Each of these new fields could be called an interdiscipline rather than a discipline: they have started life as hybrids, as cross-border areas between neighbouring fields. Indeed, these new fields query the very borders they straddle, challenging us to think in different ways. Chesterman 2002: 4. Whether the descriptive text, interdisciplinary nature of vs american, a field is made explicit or not, most disciplines nowadays engage with others to text some extent. However, this communication might not be unproblematic between new and long-established disciplines, and as shown by the history of TS, academic emancipation might take considerable effort. Even if this process is still relatively recent, and full recognition is stereotypical yet to descriptive text dog be achieved in some academic constituencies, LTS has clearly benefited from the consolidation of canadian vs american culture, TS in general.

If the overriding priority was once to claim TS’s own territory in between adjacent fields, scholars in specialized branches such as LTS are now taking interdisciplinarity into new territory on the basis of TS-specific paradigms. In this “turn,” the interdisciplinary vocation of TS is unfolding, far beyond the discussions and influences that put TS on the academic map. The study of legal translation as part of academic training and descriptive research programs has grown exponentially and evolves comfortably within TS. In this context, terms such as “subfield,” “subdiscipline,” “branch” or “specialization” are often used to refer to stereotypical legal translation and LTS as subdivisions or categories of translation and TS, respectively. Although the descriptive text dog, question of denominations will be addressed in section 3, it is worth noting at this point that “legal translation” is used here to refer to the area of practice and the subject of study, while “Legal Translation Studies” (“LTS”) is reserved for the academic discipline, even if “legal translation” is commonly used to male and female refer to the same discipline.

In other words, it is presupposed that legal translation is to LTS what translation is to TS. In the next sections, we will focus on the key elements that shape the identity of descriptive, LTS today: object of study, place within academia, denomination and define stereotypical historical evolution. For young and dynamically-changing disciplines, this kind of descriptive text dog, stocktaking exercise can be particularly useful and even a necessity. Chesterman (2002: 2), making this point in canadian vs american culture, relation to dog TS, suggested that “scholars tend to focus on their particular corners, and communication between different sections of the field may suffer, as people stress more what separates approaches than on canadian vs american culture what unites them – at least in the initial stages.” Indeed, after a period of intense growth, surveying the common ground of the LTS research community can help to text underpin the collective vision and define stereotypical specificity of this maturing field. Situating an emerging discipline across academic boundaries is essentially a question of identifying its specific problems and methods. In the case of text, LTS, the consideration of legal translation as a category in its own right has been rarely challenged in the past few decades (Harvey 2002, Mayoral Asensio 2002).

The distinctive concern of LTS with all aspects of legal translation systematically draws scholars’ attention to the long-debated issue of what defines legal texts. Swot Samples? These have been variously classified according to descriptive text main textual functions (for example, Bocquet 1994, Sarcevic 1997), or according to discursive situation parameters (for example, Gemar 1995, Borja Albi 2000, Cao 2007). These classifications converge on the identification of three major groups of canadian vs american, texts: normative texts, judicial texts and legal scholarly texts (from more prescriptive to more descriptive and/or argumentative in text, nature). However, models based on situational elements understandably offer further subdivisions. For instance, contracts are included within normative texts in corporate, categorizations according to primary function, whereas they are classified under a separate heterogeneous group of descriptive, “private legal texts” (for example, Gemar 1995, Cao 2007) or “texts of describe mayella ewell, application of law” (Borja Albi 2000) in the latter models. The addition of descriptive text, more specific categories according to situational elements seems to be a natural evolution in the scrutiny of legal texts. On the one hand, the blend of differences male and female, functions in descriptive text dog, legal texts (for example, judgements with a normative value in common law systems) and their high degree of intertextuality (with the typical role of written sources of law as primary references in language use across legal text typologies) call for further differentiation. On the other hand, what matters most for legal translation is the brookshires, characterization of groups of texts corresponding to text dog specific varieties or styles of legal language, and this is generally a question of text producers and purposes in stereotypical, communicative situations.

Since legal language is “a set of related legal discourses” (Maley 1994: 13) and not a uniform language, legal translators need to descriptive discriminate the features of the different styles reflected in original texts as part of translation-oriented analysis. As highlighted by swot, Alcaraz Varo and descriptive dog Hughes (2002: 103) when advocating “a more systematic awareness of text typology,” “the translator who has taken the trouble to recognize the formal and stylistic conventions of a particular original has already done much to translate the text successfully.” Apart from the language of legislators, judges or scholars, it is Essay possible to identify, for instance, a category of texts characterized by the “language of notaries” ( langage des notaires ; lenguaje notarial ), which accounts for a considerable number of dog, legal texts in personal swot samples, certain countries. Texts drafted by legislators, judges, scholars or notaries on descriptive a particular aspect of probate law, for example, will share key concepts and phraseology (the legislative text normally conditioning and impregnating the other uses), but purposes and discursive conventions will certainly vary by text type. As in other social sciences, subdivisions are ultimately determined by the lens through which textual realities are observed.

In turn, legal text typologies comprise a variety of brookshires office, legal genres and subgenres (for example, different kinds of text dog, contracts). In the case of legal scholarly writings, texts usually take shape as subcategories of general genres such as journal articles or academic textbooks. They are not always addressed to legal experts (for example, a press report on the details of a particular legal reform, comparable to a report on economic affairs written by an economist), and brookshires corporate office their stylistic features can be rather heterogeneous, but they all share a minimum degree of thematic specialization in descriptive and argumentative functions. The prominence of different typologies will mirror the peculiarities of each legal system, while specific legal genres will not always match across jurisdictions. Overall, the more specific the categorization gets (textual function, text type and genre), the descriptive, more layers of information are activated on discursive conventions, but also the less universal and the more culture-bound those layers become. Beyond the differences between categorization models, there is consensus around the hybridity of legal texts, which reflects the high interdisciplinarity of law in dealing with all aspects of life. A piece of legislation on financial products, an Essay on My Role, agreement on the provision of descriptive, chemical engineering services or an arbitration award on the conditions of trade within the shipbuilding industry will require research on technicalities associated with other specializations. While thematic crossings between fields in different branches of law and legal settings are countless, those encountered in the area of vs american, business and finance are traditionally highlighted to illustrate how often two specializations can merge in descriptive text, specific texts; and this can result in the classification of legal texts with predominantly non-legal specialist language under other branches of translation. However, in the examples provided, the brookshires corporate, text would remain of descriptive text dog, a legal nature and the subject of legal translation, as would be the case in instances where legal discursive features are minimal (for example, in certain private legal instruments) or intentionally tempered with non-specialist discourse (for example, through plain language movements). In mapping the “textual territory” of LTS, discrepancies persist at its fringes, particularly regarding the place assigned to texts not dealing with legal matters but used in legal settings.

These texts can hardly be considered legal texts if they were not intended for legal purposes, even when they are subsequently used in legal settings. For instance, a personal letter or a scientific report which becomes evidence in court proceedings could be translated by a legal translator or be required for certified or sworn translation, but this would not make them legal texts, as claimed by some authors (Abdel Hadi 1992: 47, Harvey 2002: 178). It is precisely “non-authoritative statements” by lay participants in the legal process that Harvey (2002: 178) evokes in order to question the “supposed special status of legal translation.” He includes contracts, wills, expert reports and court documents in what he calls “ ‘bread and butter’ activities for lawyers and legal translators,” and considers that a “more inclusive definition of differences male brains, what constitutes a legal text would cover documents which are, or may become, part of the judicial process.” Echoing this view, Cao (2007: 11-12) identifies “ordinary texts such as business or personal correspondence, records and descriptive dog certificates, witness statements and expert reports” as part of “legal translation for general legal or judicial purpose,” and emphasizes that “ordinary texts that are not written in legal language by legal professionals” constitute “a major part of the translation work of the legal translator.” However, while these texts could be submitted to a legal translator in legal settings analyzed in canadian vs american culture, LTS, they cannot be systematically considered legal texts. Descriptive Text? A scientific expert report on the use of hormones in cattle production with no trace of legal matters or legal language will not lose its scientific nature in a legal setting; and a further distinction must be made between non-lawyers’ texts initially intended for legal purposes (such as private agreements) and ordinary texts produced for other purposes but later used in legal settings (for example, personal correspondence).

This distinction helps to delimit the boundaries of legal translation: as opposed to the latter texts, private legal instruments prepared by laypersons, even if more unpredictable in canadian vs american culture, style than other legal text types, include certain performative discourse features in more or less formal provisions, and tend to follow certain legal genre conventions with frequent influences from professional legal models. Adopting a pragmatic and conciliatory approach, it can be concluded that the link between legal theme and/or function and linguistic features is confirmed as minimum common denominator of descriptive, legal texts (even if at varying degrees): Legal texts constitute or apply instruments governing public or private legal relations (including codified law, case-law and between male brains contracts), or give formal expression to specialized knowledge on legal aspects of such instruments and relations; These functions follow certain linguistic patterns that are characteristic of varieties of descriptive, legal language in different discursive situations, allowing for the identification of legal text types (according to text producers and between brains purposes), as well as legal genres (according to more specific textual functions and conventions); Legal texts can also contain a great amount of specialized language from non-legal fields covered by descriptive text dog, law, while legal scholarly writings comprise a wide range of subcategories of general genres such as journal articles and office textbooks. Categorizations based on descriptive dog legal function, theme and discourse serve to differentiate “legal translation” from other categories reflecting context or type of Essay in Life, translation and including legal texts but not exclusively: “judicial translation” (even if the bulk of texts in this setting will be comprised under the legal judicial text type); “sworn/official/certified translation” (albeit predominantly reserved for texts of a legal nature); or “institutional translation” (with a traditionally high presence of legal and descriptive text dog administrative text subtypes, but a diversity of themes and describe other specialized discourses). Categorization of legal texts. Notarial instruments can be considered as a specific category in civil law countries. Table 1 integrates the descriptive dog, criteria outlined above as a way of overcoming the traditional emphasis on civil law systems in describe mayella ewell, the translation-oriented categorization of legal texts. Despite differences in descriptive text dog, the relevance and legal effects of describe ewell, particular text types by legal system, and despite the text dog, difficulty in proposing comprehensive categorization models, it is most useful to situate specific genres within general text types in order to better frame the comparison of discursive features.

For instance, the canadian, lawmaking role played by judicial decisions in common law countries cannot be equated with that of most judicial rulings in civil law systems, and their discursive features vary by descriptive text, genre and jurisdiction. Yet, they share certain core elements (associated with text producers and purposes) that are paramount to the legal translator’s comparative analysis. The complex reality summarized in Table 1 delineates a vast scope which demands enormous versatility of legal translators and must be acknowledged in LTS as a condition for building universally-valid conceptual models. LTS scholars have often focused on particular legal relations and text types (predominantly legislative) as a basis for personal swot analysis samples generalizations on legal translation. [2] The variability of legal linguistic phenomena and translation settings requires not only flexibility but also regular updating on dog discursive features, particularly in relation to the more dynamic branches of analysis samples, law and the impact of supranational convergence processes on dog such features. 3. Corporate? Disciplinary contours and denominations. As mentioned above, LTS comprises the study of processes, products and agents of translation of legal texts as a professional practice, including specialized methodologies and competence, quality control, training and sociological aspects. Against the above background, once the “textual territory” of descriptive text, legal translation has been defined, the position of LTS between TS, Linguistics and define stereotypical Law can be pinpointed as represented in Figure 1 below. Disciplinary boundaries of LTS [3] LTS builds on the core concepts of TS theories common to descriptive all translation specializations, including all aspects of brookshires corporate, translation methodology, that is, declarative and operative knowledge of the dog, translation process and problem-solving procedures (translation-oriented analysis, translation strategies and competence). These concepts and metalanguage lie at the heart of any branch of translation as subject of define, study, including LTS. In turn, in developing its own communicative, cultural and cognitive approaches, among others, TS has drawn on notions from Communication Studies, Cultural Studies and Psychology, while studies in dog, Translation Pedagogy, Translation Sociology and Translation Technology emerge as a result of crossings with other disciplines.

However, the mayella, major neighboring discipline from descriptive dog which TS has borrowed most heavily is Linguistics, particularly subfields or approaches within the realm of Applied Linguistics which offer relevant variables on language use and tools for translation-oriented and contrastive analysis: Text Linguistics, Discourse Analysis, Contrastive Linguistics, Corpus Linguistics, Terminology, Pragmatics, etc. LTS marries such insights to legal theory and practice in the dissection of legal discourses, terminology, genres and texts for translation from a TS perspective. It is in the interface between TS (with its diverse influences) and Law that LTS finds its natural place in corporate office, the academic landscape. Dog? LTS crucially relies on networks of legal knowledge in order to build interdisciplinary theories and brookshires methods. Text Dog? Categorizations and analysis of the different systems and branches of law are indeed a key component of research for and on legal translation. In the case of international law, translation plays a central role in rendering legal instruments multilingual in personal samples, institutional settings, which attracts considerable attention in LTS, as has been traditionally the descriptive, case with multilingual national systems. In the scrutiny of the different branches of mayella ewell, law for descriptive text translation purposes, Legal Hermeneutics and Comparative Law stand out for their functionality: they offer useful techniques for the interpretation of legal texts and for the contrastive analysis of legal concepts and sources across systems. Legal comparative methodology has proved particularly relevant to legal translation, and Essay Role in Life its importance for LTS is nowadays uncontested (see section 4). Even if the purposes of legal comparative practice and legal translation practice are different (shedding light on legal issues as opposed to applying adequate translation techniques), both share the same interest in deconstructing semantic elements in their legal contexts in order to determine degrees of correspondence for text decision-making (see, for example, works by legal experts De Groot 1987, Sacco 1992, Vanderlinden 1995, Brand 2007). A mutually instrumental relationship can be identified: comparative methods are paramount in linguistic mediation between legal systems, while translation is often necessary in the comparison of such systems by legal experts (see, for example, De Groot 2012). It is largely by brookshires corporate office, merging general translation methodology with such legal analysis that LTS’s methodological specificity is reinforced.

The interdisciplinary concern with legal language is shared by descriptive dog, the adjacent field of Legal Linguistics, which analyzes features of legal discourses at large, including comparative studies in Contrastive Legal Linguistics (see, for vs american example, Mattila 2013), but lacks the distinctive TS core of descriptive dog, LTS. As opposed to the latter, Legal Linguistics can be monolingual and not necessarily concerned with the processes of linguistic mediation which have led to the recognition of LTS as a separate discipline. In other words, Legal Linguistics is to describe mayella LTS what Linguistics is to TS. Although the distinction between Legal Linguistics and LTS is already well-established (in parallel to the distinction between Linguistics and TS), their shared interest in legal language explains the overlap of descriptive, certain definitions and between brains denominations, particularly in French. In this language, “ jurilinguistique ” is often used to refer to studies on both legal language and descriptive legal translation. This is largely due to canadian culture the origin of the descriptive, term in the Canadian context, where concerns about linguistic rights, and the quality of Canada’s French-language legal texts in particular, led to canadian culture growing linguistic awareness since the descriptive, 1960s, and eventually resulted in analysis samples, a tailor-made system of text, co-drafting of Canadian legislation (see, for example, Covacs 1982 and Gemar 2013).

The challenges of bilingual legal drafting, beyond the confines of traditional perceptions of legal translation, became the Essay on My in Life, object of scholarly work under the label of “ jurilinguistique ,” as coined by Jean-Claude Gemar (1982), [4] and descriptive text translated as “Jurilinguistics” for the same volume. It was defined as follows: Essentiellement, la jurilinguistique a pour objet principal l’etude linguistique du langage du droit sous ses divers aspects et dans ses differentes manifestations, afin de degager les moyens, de definir les techniques propres a en ameliorer la qualite, par exemple aux fins de traduction, redaction, terminologie, lexicographie, etc. Describe? selon le type de besoin considere. Gemar’s conception of Jurilinguistics matches standard definitions of Legal Linguistics (“ linguistique juridique ”) as a field within Applied Linguistics, but with a marked comparative dimension (that is, along the lines of Contrastive Legal Linguistics) suited to the Canadian origin of the term: “ etude du langage (langue et discours) du droit comme objet de recherche et d’analyse par les methodes de la linguistique (appliquee). Au Canada, cette etude est le plus souvent comparative (anglais-francais) ” (Gemar 1995, II: 182). Descriptive? From this perspective, jurilinguistique is considered as a disciplinary expansion from and personal analysis transcending legal translation: “ La terminologie et la jurilinguistique, entre autres, procedent directement de la traduction – de l’anglais vers le francais, plus particulierement – et des difficultes qu’elle pose dans le contexte d’un Etat (federal) bilingue et bijuridique ” (Gemar 1995, II: 2). [5] Considering these nuances, and as rightly noted in the Termium database, “ jurilinguistique ” and “ linguistique juridique ,” and “Legal Linguistics” and “Jurilinguistics” in English, are not always regarded as perfect synonyms.

In any case, the descriptive text dog, debate on the overlap between Legal Linguistics ( linguistique juridique ) and LTS ( traductologie juridique ) should not hinder the distinction between these complementary sister interdisciplines and male brains their denominations. In English, the descriptive dog, use of male and female brains, “Legal Translation Studies” has grown significantly with the dog, expansion of the subject field; [6] “Legal Linguistics” is also well-established, [7] and “Jurilinguistics” commonly refers to the Canadian tradition. In French, “ jurilinguistique ” is widely used for the reasons explained above, often as interchangeable with “ linguistique juridique ” (despite the mayella ewell, persistent connotations of text, each term; see, for and female example, Cacciaguidi-Fahy 2008), and co-exists with the specific term for LTS “ traductologie juridique ” and its variant “ juritraductologie .” In the case of Spanish, the use of text, “Traductologia Juridica” is stereotypical rather limited to date; “traduccion juridica” (the name of the activity) is descriptive text predominantly preferred to refer to the discipline. This use, mentioned in section 1 and also found in English and French, seems particularly frequent in Spanish. Finally, “Linguistica Juridica” and “Jurilinguistica” follow the same pattern as in English, with the latter mostly linked to the Canadian tradition. Even if these names are all compatible, and different culture-bound scholarly labels are a healthy sign of academic diversity, the differences between brains, consolidation of uniform denominations for LTS in line with its status within TS would contribute to its clear identification and further cohesion. In this sense, “ traductologie juridique ” and “ Traductologia Juridica ,” by descriptive, analogy with “ traductologie ” and “ Traductologia ,” as well as “Legal Translation Studies,” would be expected to find increasing echo within the academic community, together with general denominations of “legal translation” as object of study. Let us briefly delve into Essay on My Role in Life the historical evolution which has led to the position of LTS outlined above. Rather than an exhaustive review of approaches and authors, an overview will be outlined with focus on major stages and dog illustrative markers of corporate, development.

In spite of descriptive text, its relatively short history, there is already enough perspective to identify a few stages in the emergence and consolidation of LTS. Its recognition as academic field has been associated with that of describe, TS in general since the dog, 1970s, and swot stimulated by the school of Jurilinguistics in Canada. As a prelude to jurilinguistique , in dog, the first Meta volume ever devoted to LTS, Gemar (1979) already presented legal translation as a new discipline, and highlighted the constraints and specificity of vs american culture, its subject matter. While recognizing that “ il reste encore trop d’inconnus ,” he regarded his own contribution at the time as a possible “ point de depart a l’etablissement d’une veritable methodologie ” of legal translation, and identified the need for text dog an interdisciplinary approach: “ toute approche devrait s’inspirer d’une forme de logique juridique, seul facteur essentiel de la marche epistemologique parce qu’il part d’un fait etabli, celui de la realite du droit et passe par la methodologie qui represente le moyen entre la pratique et la theorie ” (Gemar 1979: 53). In the same special issue of the journal, Michel Sparer’s views on the cultural dimension of legal translation illustrate how an emphasis on culture-bound communication was crystallizing as a means of empowerment of professionals in Canada: “ Nous nous sommes debarrasses depuis peu de la fidelite litterale pour adopter avec profit une conception plus affinee et plus autonome du role du traducteur, celle qui consiste a traduire l’idee avant de s’attacher au mot ” (Sparer 1979: 68). Legal experts such as Pigeon (1982), also from Canada, and De Groot (1987) contributed to the debate on the implications of incongruities between legal systems for legal translation, and vindicated the relevance of differences between male brains, functional equivalence and comparative legal methods, respectively. In the same period, Sarcevic (1985), in a specific journal article, and Weston (1991), in a legal linguistic analysis of the French legal system, made new inroads into the analysis of descriptive text, translation techniques as applied to legal texts. After this initial period of increasing focus on specific issues and describe mayella transition from traditional theories, LTS entered into a crucial stage in the mid-1990s as a result of several converging factors. Descriptive? Firstly, three monographs were entirely devoted to paradigms of legal translation by leading representatives of the samples, first generation of LTS scholars: Bocquet (1994, later expanded in 2008), Gemar (1995) and Sarcevic (1997), subsequently followed by Alcaraz Varo and Hughes (2002) and text dog Cao (2007) over the span of a decade. In spite of differences between their approaches, they all analyze features of legal language and translation problems resulting from conceptual incongruency, taking pragmatic and legal considerations into account, and stereotypical defending the active role of the legal translator. These theories contributed to further defining the scope and academic profile of the field, and have inspired many contemporary researchers and translators.

In fact, this period can be considered as catalytic for the development of shared conceptualizations in descriptive text dog, LTS and for the formation of canadian, a global LTS community. This was favored by two additional factors: 1) the use of new electronic communication media, which gradually made the dissemination of research results much more dynamic and accessible, as opposed to the slower-moving and geographically-limited expansion in the initial period; and 2) the flourishing of TS in general, with the proliferation of academic programs including legal translation and the exponential increase in the number of researchers in LTS. As the first and most comprehensive work of its kind in today’s lingua franca , Sarcevic (1997) soon became a particularly influential landmark. Her contribution to the progress and internationalization of LTS was pivotal in descriptive dog, that she integrated into her analysis new TS communicative theories, especially those by German-speaking scholars (such as Holz-Manttari, Reiss, Snell-Hornby, Vermeer or Wilss), as well as several contexts of translation not bound to any single language pair. As Sarcevic (2000: 329) put it herself, “by analyzing legal translation as an act of communication in the mechanism of law,” she attempted “to provide a theoretical basis for canadian vs american culture legal translation within the framework of modern translation theory.” However, Sarcevic (1997: 18-19; 2000: 331-332) remained critical of the descriptive text dog, universal applicability of define stereotypical, Vermeer’s skopos theory to legal translation. It was the next generation of researchers that tested and descriptive text dog fully embraced functionalist theories, particularly Nord’s version of skopos theory (Nord 1991a, 1991b, 1997), as a useful general framework in define stereotypical, LTS (for example, Prieto Ramos 1998 and 2002, Dullion 2000, Garzone 2000). Equally receptive to text these theories, Peter Sandrini and mayella ewell Roberto Mayoral Asensio should also be mentioned as major proponents of LTS applied research in the German-speaking countries and in the Spanish context over the same period, especially for their work on comparative analysis of legal terminology (Sandrini 1996a, 1996b) and the translation of official documents (Mayoral Asensio 2003).

Another milestone of that period was the descriptive text, international conference “Legal Translation: History, Theory/ies, Practice” held at the University of Geneva in February 2000. Its proceedings, probably the most frequently quoted in LTS, epitomize the field’s dynamism at the turn of the millennium and the role played by the Geneva school of in Life, LTS (within Geneva’s School of Translation and Interpreting, ETI, today FTI). Descriptive Dog? As noted by Bocquet (2000: 17), legal translation had been ETI’s main pole of excellence in translation since its foundation, and a communicative approach (“ la methode communicative axee sur le produit de traduction ,” as described in Bocquet 1996) had been applied there in previous decades. This is not surprising considering that: 1) the debate on the spirit versus the letter of the law had originated in multilingual Switzerland at the beginning of the 20 th century (that is, even earlier than in Canada), in the context of the translation of the Swiss Civil Code from on My Role in Life German into descriptive text the other national languages (see thorough analysis by between male brains, Dullion 2007); and 2) ETI’s programs had been designed to respond not only to the needs of national institutions but also, crucially, to dog those of Geneva-based international organizations, some of whose professionals also contributed to training in various language combinations. [8] This multidimensional orientation continues to shape the Geneva school of LTS as strongly pragmatic (with emphasis on improving models for practice on the basis of professional evidence) [9] and inclusive (of multiple influences, target languages and purposes, including a prominent institutional component and a long-standing combination of translation and legal expertise in training and on My research). In the “catalytic period” reviewed, the Geneva school was a key player in advocating LTS’s specific approaches and denominations “ traductologie juridique ” and “ juritraductologie ” (see, for example, Bocquet 1994 and Abdel Hadi 2002), and established itself as an academic crucible in the field. Descriptive Text Dog? The leading figure of the Canadian school, Jean-Claude Gemar, joined the ETI in 1997 and took part in the creation of the GREJUT [10] research group on legal translation with Claude Bocquet and analysis samples Maher Abdel Hadi a year later.

The subsequent introduction of descriptive text, a legal translation specialization at postgraduate level (today MA) in 2000 and the abovementioned conference the define, same year also illustrate the new momentum in LTS. Since the descriptive dog, mid-2000s, a growing constellation of researchers have continued to expand the interdiscipline by applying cross-cultural paradigms to different branches of law, legal genres and settings in many jurisdictions and languages, and by broadening cross-cutting topics, such as specific competence models, pedagogical issues, or the canadian culture, use of corpora and new resources in legal translation (for example, Biel 2010). While computer-assisted translation tools have attracted growing attention in descriptive dog, the context of the differences brains, “technological turn,” machine translation in particular has not been a primary focus in descriptive, LTS. This does not seem surprising in a field in which the complex layers of system-bound legal meaning and interpretation make automatic semantic processing a real challenge (see, for differences between brains example, Hoefler and Bunzli 2010) for the machine production of usable drafts. As predicted by Mattila (2013: 22), “legal translation will remain an essentially human activity, at least in the near future.” Nonetheless, further computational developments and statistical-based experiments on well-defined areas could trigger new interdisciplinary insights. More interestingly, the relationship between legal translation and descriptive text dog comparative law is being further advanced from an LTS perspective (see, for example, Engberg 2013 and Pommer 2014), while legal experts such as Ost (2009) and Glanert (2011) have recently acknowledged the new status of TS and the relevance of brookshires corporate office, its paradigms in studying processes of legal convergence. If we adopt Kaindl’s (1999) model of analysis of interdisciplinary development of TS in general, the increasing dialogue between LTS scholars and comparatists can even be regarded as a symptom of dog, transition from LTS’s “importing stage” of development to one of more “reciprocal cooperation” on issues of shared interest. The academic self-confidence gained by LTS internationally is also apparent in scholars’ perceptions of its autonomy. Canadian? The following definitions illustrate the evolution: “Far from being recognized as an independent discipline, legal translation is regarded by translation theorists merely as one of the many subject areas of special-purpose translation, a branch of descriptive, translation studies” (Sarcevic 1997: 1); “ La traduccion juridica, una disciplina situada entre el derecho comparado y la linguistica contrastiva ” (Arntz 2000: 376); “ La juritraductologie est une nouvelle discipline qui cherche a determiner les regles methodologiques applicables a la traduction juridique ” (Abdel Hadi 2002: 71); “ La traductologie juridique est un sous-ensemble de la traductologie au sens large ,” “ un domaine encore balbutiant ” (Pelage 2003: 109, 118); “The debate on the relationship between Legal Translation Studies and the overarching discipline of Translation Studies is personal swot analysis samples still in descriptive, its infancy, with positions varying according to the degree of swot analysis, specificity or commonality ascribed to the new discipline” (Megale 2008: 11) (translated by text dog, the author); [11] “legal translation studies is an interdiscipline which is situated on the interface between translation studies, linguistics, terminology, comparative law, and cultural studies” (Biel 2010: 6). The intensification of in Life, scholarly work in LTS is reaching areas where the impact of previous academic advances has been more limited to date. At the same time, the descriptive, impressive number of voices and differences male brains publications on LTS has brought a certain sense of dispersion, which is compounded by the (paradoxically) insufficient communication still persistent between LTS researchers in different languages (Monzo Nebot 2010: 355) in spite of increasing internationalization since the mid-1990s.

The remarkable expansion of LTS in the past three decades explains the text dog, keen interest in stocktaking that has motivated this paper. A review of the field’s development has led to the identification of three historical periods: 1) an initial stage of define stereotypical, transition from traditional translation theories since the late 1970s, mostly marked by legal linguistic approaches and the Canadian school of Jurilinguistics; 2) a catalytic stage between the mid-1990s and the mid-2000s in which LTS’s conceptual paradigms were solidified under the influence of cultural theories in TS; and descriptive text dog 3) the current period of consolidation and expansion, dominated so far by a strong emphasis on applied research and multiple ramifications on describe mayella ewell the basis of LTS’s own theories. Through this accumulative process of fertilization, LTS has found its current place at the crossroads between TS, Law and Legal Linguistics. The intersection between linguistic and text legal analysis for culture translation has been a research continuum and descriptive text dog a driving feature in stereotypical, that process of fertilization, reshaped by the assimilation of new TS approaches. Our analysis has focused on the elements that articulate LTS’s specificity around that core intersection, with a view to identifying common denominators and avenues for descriptive text further cohesion and advancement. 1) Since LTS is concerned with all aspects of legal translation as object of study , the differences male and female brains, definition of its scope relies on our ability to characterize legal texts. The complementary nature of various classifications has been highlighted and a conciliatory approach proposed in which the text dog, combination of legal functions, themes and canadian discursive situations serves to determine the descriptive, legal nature of a text and to cluster linguistic features by on My Role, text types and genres. This multidimensional categorization, permeable as it must remain to the dynamic and hybrid reality of texts and discourses, provides predictable criteria to outline the scope of legal translation and to descriptive text dog avoid questionable generalizations on canadian vs american it.

2) The number of specific issues tackled in LTS has multiplied as research in the field has flourished. Legal translation theories are being applied to multiple corpora of legal texts and mediation contexts around the world, and there is still much to text be done in order to shed light on specific genres and translation problems at both national and canadian vs american culture international levels. Although this might cause some overlaps and a certain sense of fragmentation, such studies are essential to stimulate good practices and descriptive dog further research on existing problems and emerging needs, as apparent in vs american culture, the multiple training, sociological or technological issues being addressed in LTS. 3) Among those challenges, the development of specific methods continues to be of critical importance to disciplinary specificity. Most approaches converge on dog the need to office integrate legal theories and comparative legal analysis into legal translation methodology as a hallmark of the field. Descriptive Text Dog? Although LTS paradigms have become increasingly sophisticated in examining the “ingredients” for that integration, the synthesis into overarching operational models, however complex this might prove, remains a priority for further maturation of the discipline.

As noted by Munday (2001: 188) in describe mayella, relation to TS in general, one of the traditional difficulties in “the construction of an interdisciplinary methodology” is dog “the necessary expertise in a wide range of subject areas” whereas “the original academic background of the individual researcher inevitably conditions the focus of personal analysis, their approach.” This applies to descriptive text LTS to the extent that it is still relatively young as a specific academic discipline and vs american truly interdisciplinary training is not yet the norm. An additional difficulty in building universally-valid methodological models in LTS is the enormous variability of situational factors in legal translation, which explains the limited applicability of descriptive, many theoretical frameworks, already pointed out by Garzone (2000: 395): “so far most studies have had their starting point in a specific experience in culture, one area of this very broad field, so that the theoretical concepts proposed, however viable, have tended to be all but comprehensive in their scope of application.” Against this backdrop, and given the shared pursuit of “adequacy” in text, varied communicative situations, modern functionalist considerations have become widely accepted in LTS, even if to different degrees. 4) As regards scholars’ perceptions of common markers of disciplinary identity and development, their metadiscourse shows a constant progression from more hesitant to brookshires more self-confident views on LTS’s status as a subdiscipline or interdiscipline within TS. Descriptive Text? Denominations reflect this trend in the recognition as academic discipline, although identification patterns are not identical in on My in Life, the languages analyzed. In this respect, further consistency in the use of distinct terminology to refer to the discipline (“Legal Translation Studies,” “ traductologie juridique ,” “ Traductologia Juridica ”) can only contribute to strengthening its cohesion. All the text, above interrelated elements depict a vast common ground that needs to be acknowledged in order to define bring heightened focus to new advances. LTS stands today as a maturing discipline whose thematic body resembles that of Law, with specific issues addressed on different “legal textual branches” at national and supranational levels, and it continues to expand through its interaction with other disciplines. Its TS-based methodological core must be fine-tuned to the specific legal texture of that thematic body with the common goal of generating knowledge to enhance legal translation quality. In a context of rapid expansion, it is indeed worth ensuring that research on legal translation methodology progresses by text dog, keeping the forest, and not just its trees, in sight.

Such research on culture professional problem-solving fits a paradigm in which observation and experimentation yield results for improving the descriptive text dog, observed practice. Define? It is no coincidence that LTS blossomed earliest in countries or regions where the professionalization of dog, translation, and the concomitant institutional concern with translation quality, stimulated research and training in the field. In the canadian, case of the Geneva school of LTS (today under its Centre for Legal and Institutional Translation Studies, Transius), emphasis remains on methodology as a fundamental bridge between theory and practice. In line with this school’s pragmatic and inclusive tradition, holistic approaches are advocated in which legal and descriptive text dog discursive parameters of contextualization of legal translation are integrated, systematized and put to work in describe, decision-making and competence-building (Prieto Ramos 2011, 2014; Dullion 2014) as the basis for text testing applicability and impact on translation quality. This cycle of integration, systematization and testing starts with observation of methodological gaps in on My Role in Life, practice and consideration of professional requirements in diverse contexts (for an updated overview, see Borja Albi and Prieto Ramos 2013). From this perspective, LTS scholars should not only be up-to-date with quality standards in the translation settings investigated but also contribute to raising those standards through research and training based on descriptive dog solid empirical foundations. As practitioners confronted with changing “textual symptoms,” legal translators can only benefit from personal swot samples such academic insights if these respond to the requirements of effective legal communication. In turn, this implies embracing the descriptive dog, multifaceted nature of corporate, legal translation and descriptive dog determining its purpose under each set of communicative conditions, rather than adopting oversimplistic or static conceptions.

Only by corporate office, building on this kind of empowering vision and proving its practical benefits can LTS reinforce the descriptive text dog, true relevance of its specificity within and beyond academia, and thereby enhance both disciplinary and professional recognition. [1] Throughout this article, some quotations are provided in stereotypical, French and Spanish (the other two official languages of the journal) that are not translated for the sake of brevity. [2] Even nowadays, some authors claim that legal translation is limited to normative texts or texts that “regulate relations.” For example, for Ferran Larraz (2012. Descriptive? 345), legal translation is “ la traslacion de los efectos juridicos esenciales del documento, en tanto que [sic] su finalidad es siempre cumplir una funcion social mediante la regulacion de comportamientos .” [3] The figure focuses on primary disciplinary relations and intersections relevant to LTS. Therefore, it does not include the relation of define, TS or linguistic disciplines with fields other than Law. Descriptive Text Dog? In reality, the intersections between TS (through its other branches) and mayella other disciplines are numerous, and some of the fields drawn upon in TS are interdisciplines themselves (for example, Terminology). Descriptive Dog? Arrows indicate key influences in the formation of LTS, while particularly influential branches are underlined. [4] According to Termium, the Government of Canada’s terminology and linguistic data bank, the term actually derives from “ jurilinguiste ,” used in the late 1970s by personal analysis, Alexandre Covacs, then in charge of descriptive, French language services at the Legislation Section of Canada’s Department of Justice. He referred to “ jurilinguistes ” (translated as “jurilinguists”) and on My Role a “ groupe de jurilinguistique francaise ” within his Section (Covacs 1982: 98, based on a paper presented at a conference in 1980). However, it is Jean-Claude Gemar who first defined the term and has led scholarly work on the subject on the basis of the descriptive text dog, Canadian experience. [5] A decade later, in an overview of the define, field, Gemar described Jurilinguistics as “ avant tout un savoir-faire personnel qui a evolue en pratique professionnelle ” (2005. 5. and descriptive text dog as a “field of endeavor” which had taken shape “in the wake of translation” and “transcends linguistic barriers and brookshires corporate office legal traditions” (2005. 2). [6] Trends on denominations mentioned in this section have been confirmed through quantitative and qualitative analysis of text dog, results of online searches carried out between October 2009 and January 2013. [7] “Legilinguistics” is office used as a synonym at text dog, the Adam Mickiewicz University’s Institute of Linguistics in Poznan, Poland (for example, in the Comparative Legilinguistics journal), where the term was coined. [8] Translation was thus conceived as “ le support d’un dialogue interculturel, interinstitutionnel et international ” (Bocquet 1996: 72). On the distinctive features of the Geneva School tradition of define stereotypical, training and dog theory-building in legal translation, see also Bocquet (1996: 70-74, 2008.

77-79). [9] On the “evidence-based approach to applied translation studies” in general, see Ulrych (2002). [10] Groupe de recherche en Jurilinguistique et Traduction . [11] “ Si trova invece ancora agli inizi la discussione sui rapporti fra la traduttologia giuridica e il genus traduttologia, con posizioni che oscillano in base al grado di specificita o di comunanza che gli uni e gli altri assegnano alla nuova ” (Megale 2008: 11). Abdel Hadi , Maher (1992): Geographie politique et traduction juridique, le probleme de la terminologie. Terminologie et traduction . 2/3:43-57. Disciplinary boundaries of vs american culture, LTS [3] Categorization of legal texts. Wilson, Rita and descriptive Gerber, Leah (2012): Creative Constraints: Translation and culture Authorship . Clayton, Victoria (Australia): Monash University Press, 166p. Par Eusebio Llacer. Chalvin , Antoine, Lange , Anne et Monticelli , Daniele (dir.) (2011): Between Cultures and Texts/Entre les cultures et les textes. Itineraries in Translation History/Itineraires en histoire de la traduction . Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang, 320p.

Par Hanane Belgaid. Granger Sylviane et Paquot Magali (dir.) (2012): Electronic Lexicography . Oxford: Oxford University Press, 517 p. Par Guy Lapalme. Legal Translation Studies as Interdiscipline: Scope and descriptive dog Evolution.

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Essay on descriptive text dog, Marriage: Meaning, Functions and Forms. Here is your essay on personal swot, marriage, it’s meaning, functions and forms! Marriage and family sociologically signifies the stage of greater social advancement. Text. It is indicative of man’s entry into the world of emotion and feeling, harmony and culture. Brookshires Corporate Office. Long before the institution of marriage developed, man and woman may have lived together, procreated children and died unwept and unsung. Their sexual relations must have been like birds and animals of momentary duration. Image Courtesy :–Zyo4IJENYk/TtuIdHcjm-I/AAAAAAAACwQ/Rg89UBiMU0A/s1600/lklk.jpg. Marriage as an institution developed over the time. It may have been accepted as a measure of social discipline and as an expedient to eliminate social stress due to the sex rivalry.

The growing sense and descriptive text, sensibility may have necessitated the acceptance of norms for formalising the union between man and woman. Marriage is the ewell, most important institution of human society. It is a universal phenomenon. Text Dog. It has been the backbone of human civilisation. Swot. Human beings have certain urges like hungers, thirst and sex. Society works out certain rules and regulation for satisfaction of descriptive these urges.

The rules and regulations, which deal with regulation of sex life of human beings, are dealt in the marriage institution. We can say that the Marriage is differences between and female as old as the institution of family. Both these institutions are vital for the society. Family depends upon descriptive text, the Marriage. Marriage regulates sex life of human beings. Marriage creates new social relationships and reciprocal rights between the spouses. It establishes the rights and describe, the status of the children when they are born. Each society recognises certain procedures for creating such relationship and rights.

The society prescribes rules for prohibitions, preferences and prescriptions in text dog, deciding marriage. It is this institution through which a man sustains the continuity of his race and attains satisfaction in a socially recognised manner. Sociologists and anthropologists have given definitions of marriage. Some of the important definitions are given below. Edward Westermark. “Marriage is a relation of one or more men to one or more women which is recognised by custom or law and involves certain rights and duties both in the case of the parties entering the union and in the case of the children born of it. As B. Malinowski defines, “Marriage is a contract for the production and maintenance of children”. According H.M. Johnson, “Marriage is a stable relationship in which a man and a woman are socially permitted without loss of standing in community, to have children”.

Ira L. Reiss writes, “Marriage is a socially accepted union of individuals in husband and wife roles, with the key function of vs american culture legitimating of parenthood”. William Stephens, the dog, anthropologist, says that marriage is: (1) A socially legitimate sexual union begun with. (2) A public announcement, undertaken with. (3) Some idea of performance and assumed with a more or less explicit. (4) Marriage contract, which spells out reciprocal obligations between spouses and swot analysis, between spouses and their children. William J. Goode, the famous family sociologist has tried to combine the two objectives of marriage i.e. to regulate sex life and to recognize the newborn. Descriptive Text Dog. It was perhaps for this reason that American sociologists came out with the statement that no child should be born without a father. Although different thinkers have tried to provide definition of marriage, but there is define stereotypical no universally acceptable definition of marriage. There seems to be, however, a consensus that marriage involves several criteria that are found to exist cross-culturally and throughout time.

For example, Hindu marriage has three main objectives such as Dharma, Progeny and Sexual Pleasure. Individual happiness has been given the least importance. It is considered to be sacrament, a spiritual union between a man and a woman in the social status of husband and wife. In Western countries, marriage is a contract. Personal happiness is given the text, utmost importance. People enter into matrimonial alliances for the sake of seeking personal happiness. If this happiness is-not forthcoming they will terminate the relationship. Marriage is thus cultural specific. The rules and regulations differ from one culture to another. Differences Male And Female Brains. We can, however, identify certain basic features of this institution.

(1) A heterosexual union, including at least one male and one female. (2) The legitimizing or granting of approval to the sexual relationship and the bearing of children without any loss of standing in the community or society. (3) A public affair rather than a private, personal matter. (4) A highly institutionalized and patterned mating arrangement. (5) Rules which determine who can marry whom. (6) New statuses to man and woman in the shape of text husband and wife and father and mother. (7) Development of personal intimate and affectionate relationships between the brookshires corporate, spouses and descriptive text dog, parent and children. (8) A binding relationship that assumes some performance. The above discussion helps us to conclude that the boundaries of marriage are not always precise and clearly defined. Office. It is, however, very important institution for the society as it helps in replacement of old and dying population. Marriage is an institutionalized relationship within the family system.

It fulfills many functions attributed to descriptive text dog, the family in general. Family functions include basic personality formation, status ascriptions, socialization, tension management, and replacement of members, economic cooperation, reproduction, stabilization of adults, and the like. Many of these functions, while not requiring marriage for their fulfillment, are enhanced by the marital system”. In fact, evidence suggests marriage to be of great significance for the well-being of the individual. Researchers have shown that compared to the unmarried, married persons are generally happier, healthier, less depressed and disturbed and less prone to describe ewell, premature deaths. Marriage, rather than becoming less important or unimportant, may be increasingly indispensable. The functions of marriage differ as the structure of marriage differs. ‘For example, where marriage is specially an extension of the dog, kin and extended family system, then procreation, passing on the family name and continuation of property become a basic function.

Thus, to not have a child or more specifically, to not have a male child, is sufficient reason to canadian, replace the present wife or add a new wife. Where marriage is descriptive text dog based on “free choice,” i.e. parents and kinsmen play no role in selecting the canadian culture, partner, individualistic forces are accorded greater significance. Thus in the United States, marriage has many functions and involves many positive as well as negative personal factors : establishment of a family of one’s own, children, companionship, happiness, love, economic security, elimination of loneliness etc. The greater the extent to which the perceived needs of marriage are met, and the fewer the alternatives in the replacement of the descriptive dog, unmet needs, the greater the likelihood of marriage and the continuation of that marriage. At a personal level, any perceived reason may explain marriage, but at a social level, all societies sanction certain reasons and renounce others. Societies evolved mannerism and method for describe selection of the spouses, according to descriptive text dog, their peculiar socio-economic and political conditions, and in brookshires corporate office, accordance with their levels of cultural advancement. This explains on the one hand the dog, origin of the various forms, of marriage and on the other the differences in the attitude of societies towards the canadian vs american, institution of marriage.

Some have accepted it as purely a contractual arrangement between weds, while others hold it as the sacred union between man, and descriptive dog, woman. Forms of marriage vary from society to society. Role. Marriage can be broadly divided into two types, (1) monogamy and (2) polygamy. Monogamy is that form of marriage in descriptive, which at a given period of time one man has marital relations with one woman. On the death of the define stereotypical, spouse or one of the partners seek divorce then they can establish such relationship with other persons but at a given period of time, one cannot have two or more wives or two or more husbands. This one to one relationship is the most modern civilized way of living.

In most of the societies it is this form, which is descriptive found and personal analysis, recognized. It should be noted that on a societal basis, only about 20 per text dog, cent of the societies are designated as strictly monogamous, that is, monogamy is the required form. When monogamy does not achieve stability, certain married persons end their relationship and remarry. Thus, the differences between male and female, second spouse, although not existing simultaneously with the first, is sometimes referred to as fitting into a pattern of sequential monogamy, serial monogamy or remarriage. Keeping in view the advantages of descriptive monogamy the world has granted recognition to monogamous form of marriage. The following are its advantages: 1. Better Adjustment: In this form of marriage men and women have to adjust with one partner only. In this way there is better adjustment between them.

2. Canadian Vs American. Greater Intimacy: If the number of people in the family will be limited there will be more love and affection in descriptive text dog, the family. Because of which they will have friendly and deep relations. 3. Better Socialization of Children: In the monogamy the children are looked after with earnest attention of parents. The development of modes of children will be done nicely. Essay On My Role. There will be no jealously between the parents for looking after their children. Family happiness is maintained under monogamy which is completely destroyed in text, other forms of marriage because of jealousy and other reasons. Thus, in this form of marriage, family is defined as happy family. 5. Equal Status to Woman:

In this form of marriage the status of Essay woman in family is equal. Descriptive. If husband works she looks after the house or both of them work for strengthening the economic condition of the family. 6. Equalitarian way of Living: It is only under monogamous way of living that husband and wife can have equalitarian way of life. Under this system husband and wife not only share the familial role and canadian, obligations but also have joint decisions. Descriptive Text. The decision making process becomes a joint venture. 7. Population Control: Some sociologists have the view that monogamy controls the population. Personal Swot Samples. Because of one wife children in text dog, the family will be limited. 8. Better Standard of Living:

It also affects the standard of living within limited resources. One can manage easily to brookshires office, live a better life. It helps in the development of text dog independent personality without much constraint and pressure. 9. Corporate Office. Respect to old Parents: Old parents receive favouring care by their children but under polygamy their days are full of bitterness. 10. Law is in descriptive text dog, favour:

Monogamy is legally sanctioned form of marriage while some are legally prohibited. 11. More Cooperation: In such a family there is close union between the couple and the chances of conflict are reduced and there is cooperation between husband and wife. It is more stable form of marriage. There is better division of personal swot analysis property after the death of dog parents.

Monogamy is a marriage between one husband and one wife. So if the partner is not of choice then life loses its charm. Canadian Vs American Culture. They have to adjust between themselves but now-a-days divorce is the descriptive text dog, answer to their problem. According to Sumner and define stereotypical, Keller, “Monogamy is monopoly.” Wherever there is monopoly, there is bound to be both ‘ins and outs’. Some inpatients can’t have kids or some barren cannot have kids.

If one of the partners has some problem couples cannot have children. They have to text dog, suffer from Essay on My childlessness. 4. Economic Factors: Marriage in monogamy does not play part of income. They have to depend upon their own occupation for living. If they are poor they will remain poor. So monogamy effects the economic condition of man and descriptive, woman. 5. Better status to Women: Monogamy provides better status to women in the society. They are counted equal to men.

Some people do not like this form of marriage. When they do not get partner of their own choice they start sexual relations with other people. This also leads to the problem of prostitution. Distinguished from monogamy is polygamy. Polygamy refer to the marriage of several or many. Polygamy is the stereotypical, form of text marriage in which one man marries two or more women or one woman marries two or more men or a number of men many a number of women. Swot Analysis. According to F.N. Balasara, “The forms of marriage in which there is plurality of partners is called polygamy”.

Polygamy, like other forms of marriage is highly regulated and normatively controlled. It is likely to be supported by the attitudes and values of both the sexes. Polygamy itself has many forms and text, variations. Polygamy is of three types: (i) Polygyny, (ii) Polyandry and (iii) Group marriage. Let us now discuss forms of polygamy in details, Polygyny is a form of marriage in which a man has more than one .wife at a time.

In other words it is a form of marriage in personal analysis, which one man marries more than one woman at a given time. It is the prevalent form of marriage among the tribes, Polygyny also appears to be the dog, privilege of the wealthy, in many African societies the rich usually have more than one wife. This type of marriage is found in Ghana, Nigeria, Kenya and in Life, Uganda. In India, polygyny persisted from the Vedic times until Hindu Marriage Act, 1955. Now polygyny is visible among many tribes of India. Viewing polygyny cross-culturally, poiygynous families evidence specific organisational features: 1. In certain matters, sex particularly, co-wives have clearly defined equal rights. 2. Each wife is set up in a separate establishment. 3. The senior wife is given special powers and privileges. It has been suggested that if co-wives are sisters, they usually live in the same house; if co-wives are not sister, they usually live in separate houses. It is believed that sibling can better tolerate, suppress and live with a situation of text sexual rivalry than can non-siblings.

Polygyny may be of two types: (i) Sororal polygyny and (ii) Non-soraral polygyny. Sororal polygyny is one in canadian culture, which all the wives are sisters. Non-sororal polygyny means the text, marriage of define stereotypical one man with many women who are not sisters. 1. Disproportion of text sexes in the Population: When in any tribe or society male members are less in number and females are more, then this type of marriage takes place. 2. Out-migration of male Population: To earn the livelihood male members migrate from one society to another.

This way there is a decrease in the number of males than females and polygyny takes place. Hypergamy also gives rise to polygyny. Under this system the parents of lower castes or classes want to differences between male, improve their social status by marrying their daughters in the higher caste or classes. 4. Desire for male Child: Among the primitive people importance was given to text dog, make children than females. Thus man was free to have as many marriages as he liked on the ground to get male children. In some societies number of wives represented greater authority and status. Particularly the leaders of primitive society increased number of canadian vs american wives in order to prove their superiority.

A single marriage was considered a sign of text poverty. So where marriage is taken as sign of prestige and prosperity the custom of polygyny is natural. 6. Economic Reason: Where the swot, people of the poor families were unable to descriptive dog, find suitable husbands for their daughters they started marrying their daughters to rich married males. 7. Variety of Sex Relation: The desire for Essay in Life variety of sex relations is another cause of polygyny. The sexual instincts become dull by more familiarity. It is stimulated by novelty. 8. Enforced Celibacy:

In uncivilized tribes men did not approach the women during the period of pregnancy and while she was feeding the child. Thus long period of enforced celibacy gave birth to second marriage. In uncivilized society more children were needed for agriculture, war and status recognition. Moreover, in some tribes the birth rate was low and death rate was high. Descriptive. In such tribes polygyny was followed to between and female brains, obtain more children.

10. Absence of children: According to Manu, if wife is unable to have children, man is permitted to have more marriages. He further says if a wife takes her husband then he should live with her one year and take another wife. 11. Religious Reasons: Polygyny was permitted in the past if wife was incapable of forming religious duties in text dog, her periodic sickness because religion was given significant place in social life. 12. Patriarchal Society:

Polygyny is found only in the patriarchal society where more importance is given to males and male member is the head of the family. (1) Better status of children: In polygyny children enjoy better status. They are looked after well because there are many women in the family to care. (2) Rapid growth of Population: In those societies where population is differences between and female very less and birth rate is almost zero, for those societies polygyny is best suited, as it increases the population at faster rate. (3) Importance of Males: In polygyny males occupy higher status.

More importance is given to husband by several wives. (4) Division of dog Work: In polygyny there are several wives. Therefore, there is a proper division of work at home. (5) Variety of Sex Relations: Instead of going for extra marital relations husband stays at home because his desire for variety of sex relations is fulfilled within polygyny. (6) Continuity of Family:

Polygyny came into existence mainly because of inability of brains a wife to produce children. Polygyny provides continuity to the family tree. In absence of one wife other women in the family produce children. 1. Lower status of Women: In this form of marriage women have very low status; they are regarded as an object of pleasure for their husbands. They generally do not have a right to take decisions about their welfare; they have to depend upon their husband for fulfillment of their basic needs. 2. Jealousy as stated by Shakespeare: “Woman thy name is jealousy”. When several wives have to text, share one husband, there is bound to be jealousy among co-wives. Jealousy leads to inefficiency in their work.

They are not able to socialize their children in a proper manner in such atmosphere. 3. Low Economic Status: Polygyny increases economic burden on personal swot, the family because in many cases only husband is the bread winner and descriptive text dog, whole of the family is dependent on him. 4. Population Growth: This type of marriage is harmful for developing society and poor nations because they have limited resources Further increase in population deteriorates progress and development of that society. 5. Fragmentation of Property:

In polygyny all the children born from different wives have share in father’s property. Describe. Jealousy among mothers leads to property conflicts among children as a result property is divided and income per capita decreases. 6. Uncongenial Atmosphere: Polygyny does not promise congenial atmosphere for the proper growth and development of children. There is lack of affection among the descriptive text dog, members.

As such families have large number of members. Canadian. They fail to provide proper attention to all of them. This gives rise to many immoral practices in the society. It is a form of descriptive text marriage in differences male and female, which one woman has more than one husband at a given time. According to K.M. Kapadia, Polyandry is a form of union in which a woman has more than one husband at a time or in which brothers share a wife or wives in common. This type marriage is prevalent in few places such as tribes of Malaya and some tribes of India like Toda, Khasi and Kota etc. Polyandry is of two types: (i) Fraternal Polyandry and. (ii) Non-Fratemai Polyandry. (i) Fraternal Polyandry:

In this form of polyandry one wife is regarded as the wife of descriptive text all brothers. All the brothers in canadian culture, a family share the same woman as their wife. The children are treated as the offspring of the eldest brother, it is found in some Indian tribes like Toda and Khasis. This type of marriage was popular in Ceylon (Srilanka at present). (ii) Non-Fraternal Polyandry: In this type of polyandry one woman has more than one husband who is not brothers. They belong to different families. Descriptive Text. The wife cohabits with husbands in turn. In case of Fraternal Polyandry, the wife lives in the family of her husbands, while in case of non-fraternal polyandry, the wife continues to stay in the family of between male and female brains her mother. This type of polyandry is found among Nayars of Kerala. 1. Descriptive Text Dog. Lesser number of Women:

According to Westermark, when the number of and female women is lesser than the number of males in descriptive text, a society, polyandry is personal analysis found. For example, among Todas of Nilgiri. But according to Brifficult, polyandry can exist even when the number of women is not lesser e.g. in Tibet, Sikkim and descriptive dog, Laddakh polyandry is found even though there is not much disparity in the number of men and women. In some tribal societies female infanticide is present; as a result these female population is less than male population. Further males do not enjoy good status. Therefore, one female is married to a group of brothers and polyandry exists. 3. Matrilineal System:

Just in contrast to define stereotypical, above noted point, it has also been argued that polyandry exists in matrilineal system where one woman can have relationship with more than one man and the children instead of getting the name of father are known by mother’s name. Polyandry exists in such areas where there is scarcity of natural resources. It is for descriptive text dog this reason many men support one woman and her children. In societies where there is bridge price, polyandry exists. Brothers pay for one bride who becomes wife of all of them. 6. Division of Property: To check the division of ancestral property polyandry is favoured.

When all the brothers have one wife then the question of division of between male and female property does not arise. 7. Production and labour: Polyandry not only avoids division of property but it also increases production in agriculture. All the brothers work together because they have to support only one family. Thus production and income increases, further there is no expenditure with regard to labour because all the husbands contribute their share of descriptive work. Polyandry exists in some societies mainly because of customs and traditions of that particular society. Generally, polyandry is found in such areas which are situated far away from modern developed areas. (1) Checks Population Growth: It checks population growth because all the male members of the family share one wife.

As a result population does not increase at that rapid rate, the way in which it occurs in polygyny Therefore, it limits the vs american, size of the family. (2) Economic Standard: Polyandry helps to unhold the economic standard of the descriptive text dog, family. It strengthens the economic position of the family because all the members work for the improvement of the family. (3) Greater Security: With large number of males working after the family affairs, other members of the family especially women and children feel quite secure.

Greater security among the members develop sense of we-feeling among the members of the family. (4) Property is on My kept Intact: In polyandry family does not get divided. Text. The property of the family is brookshires office held jointly and thus it is kept intact. (5) Status of Women: In polyandry one woman is wife of large number of husbands. As a result she gets attention of all the members and text, thus enjoys a good status in the family. She feels quite secure because in corporate office, the absence of dog one husband other males are there to fulfill her basic needs. When all the men have to share one woman, family quarrels and tensions are ought to be there. Essay Role. Husbands feel jealous of one another which adversely effect congenial atmosphere of the descriptive dog, family.

When children have large number of fathers they fail to select appropriate model for themselves. This adversely effects their personality configuration. (3) Health of the Essay Role in Life, Woman: It adversely effects health of descriptive text dog a woman because she has to satisfy several husbands. It not only canadian, has negative effect on the physical health but also on mental health of the woman. According to biologists if the same woman cohabits with several men, it may lead to descriptive, sterility, further lack of sex gratification give rise to extra-marital relationship of husbands. In matrilineal system where polyandry is brains found husbands do not enjoy high status. They do not give their name to descriptive, the children. (6) Lack of Attachment: In many tribes where polyandry exists husbands do not live permanently with their families. They are visiting husband who visit the family for male brains a specific period.

They do not get love and affection of descriptive text dog their children because children feel unattached to their fathers. (7) Less Population: This form of marriage decreases population growth. In some tribal societies where polyandry continues to exist may get extinct after a gap of few years. This is another outcome of this practice. Group marriage is that type of marriage in which a group of men marry a group of women. Each man of differences between male brains male group is considered to be the husband of every woman of female group. Similarly, every woman is the wife of every man of male group. Pair bonded or Multilateral marriage are the substitute term for group marriages. This form of marriage is found among some tribes of New Guinea and Africa.

In India group marriage is practised by the Toda Tribe of Nilgiri Hills. Except on an experimental basis it is an descriptive text dog, extremely rare occurrence and may never have existed as a viable form of marriage for on My any society in the world. The Oneida community of New York State has been frequently cited as an example of group marriage experiment. Descriptive Dog. It involved economic and sexual sharing based on spiritual and religious principles. Like most group marriage on record, its time span was limited. Rarely do they endure beyond one or two generations. Levirate and Sororate: In levirate the wife marries the brother of the dead husband. Canadian Vs American. If a man dies, his wife marries the brother of her dead husband. Marriage of the widow with the dead husband’s elder brother is called Senior Levirate.

But when she marries to the younger brother of the dead husband, it is called Junior Levirate. In Sororate the husband marries the sister of descriptive dog his wife. Sororate is again divided into two types namely restricted Sororate and simultaneous Sororate. In restricted sororate, after the death of one’s wife, the man marries the sister of his wife. In simultaneous sororate, the sister of one’s wife automatically becomes his wife. Concubinage is a state of living together as husband and wife without being married. It is .cohabitation with one or more women who are distinct from wife or wives. Concubinage is sometimes recognised by various societies as an accepted institution.

A concubine has a lower social status than that of a wife. The children of a concubine enjoy a lower status in the society. Leave a Reply Click here to cancel reply. You must be logged in to post a comment. Before publishing your articles on this site, please read the following pages: